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Dr. JJ Leahy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contact

Dr. JJ Leahy

Department:

Chemical and Environmental Science

Address:

Lonsdale Building, Uni. of Limerick

Position:

Senior Lecturer

Qualifications:

PhD (Chemical Engineering)

Email:

J.J.Leahy@ul.ie

Phone (work):

(353) 61 20 2649

Fax:

(353) 61 20 2568


Senior Lecturer, Analytical Chemistry

Research Interests

Biofuels research with emphasis on the processing and structure property relationships of esterified oil seed products used as substitutes for mineral diesel,  particularly their cold temperature crystallisation behaviour.

Peat Chemistry: with emphasis on gaining an understanding of the exchange processes which occur in peat soils, and the use of peat as a cheap adsorbent for heavy metals in waste streams.

Waste Management: currently involved in a pilot study for the safe thermal disposal of  risk materials from animal carcass processing.  This involves fluidised bed combustion of meat and bone meal and combustion of the tallow in fixe

Projects/Funding/Collaboration

“Production and testing of waste cooking oil biodiesel”
Forbairt Strategic Research Program (1996) with Teagasc
Funding  £49,000

“A trial of waste cooking oil biodiesel as a summer and winter fuel for compression ignition diesel engined vehicles”
E.U. Alterner program (1997) with CIRAD Montpellier France
ADEME Paris
Funding  £120,000

“Scale amelioration on the heat exchange surfaces of evaporative condensers”
Forbairt Applied Research Program (1998) with ZPM Europe
Funding £20,000

"The disposal of MBM and associated tallow"
Dept of Agriculture food and forestry with Dept of Agricultural and Food Engineering UCD, UPSgen Ltd Cork
Funding £382,000

References

O Neill, P.,  C. Birkinshaw,  JJ Leahy,  M. Buggy. 1995 The distribution of oxidation products in irradiated ultra high mlecular weight polyethylene Polymer Degradation and Stability  vol 49 239-244.

Leahy J.J.,& M.A Hughes, 1997 The Rheology of Peat/solvent Slurries J. Chem Technol & Biotechnol. Vol 70 193-197.

Leahy J.J., C. Macken & M. Ryan, 2000, The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the adhesion behavior of aqueous suspensions. Colloid & Interfacial Science 225, 209-213.

O’Neill, P., C. Birkinshaw, J.J. Leahy, R. Bartlie; 1999, The role of long lived free radicals in the ageing of irradiated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Polymer Degradation and Stability 63 31-39.

McDonnell, K., S. Ward, J.J. Leahy., McNulty, P, 1999 Properties of Rapeseed oil for use as a Diesel fuel extender, Journal of the American Oil   Chemists Society, Vol 76, (539-543).

Moles, R., N. Moles, J.J. Leahy, 1999, Radiocarbon dated episode of Bronze Age slope instability in south-eastern Burren, Co Clare. Irish Geography, vol 32(1), 52-57.

Leahy, J.J., J.A.G.Drake,  I.L. Jamieson, C. Birkinshaw, 1990, Structural Characteristics of  peat bitumen and peat/petroleum bitumen blends, and consideration of their use as road binder materials. Journal of Material Science,  Vol 25, 3688-3692.

Leahy, J.J., J.A.G. Drake, C. Birkinshaw, 1990 Thermal Ageing of peat    Bitumen,  Fuel, Vol 69, 787-789.

Leahy J.J., C. Birkinshaw; 1992 Chemical and Physical structure of Peat Bitumen. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology.. Vol 53, 57-65.

Published conference Proceeding Papers

O Neill,P., C. Birkinshaw, JJ Leahy, 1996 Oxidation of irradiated Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene 21st Polymer Degradation Symposium (RSC)  University of Warick Sept. 1996.

Leahy, J.J., J.A.G. Drake, C. Birkinshaw, I.L. Jamieson, 1989 Chemical and Rheological Characterisation of Peat Bitumen and Blends with Petroleum Bitumen. Proc. of 4th Eurobitume Symposium, Madrid.

Hughes, M.A., Drake, J.A.G., Webb, S, Leahy, J.J., Babington, R.J.; 1989,  Proc. International Symposium on Peat.  Bemijia, USA.  pp360-369.

Leahy, J.J.,  J.A.G. Drake, C.Birkinshaw,  1990 Structure Property Relationships in Peat Bitumens Proc. Conf. on Peat production and use. Jyväskylä, Finland, 262- 268.

Howard-Hildige, R., S. Condon, J.J.Leahy, 1995, Emissions from two compression ignition diesel engined  vehicles running on mineral and rapeseed  oil based fuels. Air pollution III, Porto Carras Greece Sept.1995. Published by Computational Mechanics Publications.

O’Neill, P., C. Birkinshaw , J.J. Leahy, 1999, Ageing characteristics of g irradiated  ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Int. Conf. On Ageing Studies & Lifetime Extension of Materials, St Catherine’s  College, Oxford, UK 12th-14th July.

Lyons, E , J.J. Leahy 1999, Ageing Study of Air Activated Adhesives. Int. Conf. On Ageing Studies & Lifetime Extension of Materials, St Catherine’s  College, Oxford, UK 12th-14th July.


Material/Downloads

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Summary Statistics

Carbolea
Total

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

Total
for Last
5 Years

Journal Papers

16

0

0

0

1

5

6

Book Chapters

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Conference Papers

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

Presentations

3

0

0

0

0

1

1

Posters

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Videos

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Reports

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Patents

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Untitled Document

Journal Articles

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Lynch, D., Low, F., Henihan, A.M.,, Garcia, A.,, Kwapinski, W.,, Zhang, L.,, Leahy, J.J. (2014) Behavior of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of poultry litter, Energy and Fuels

Click for abstract
In this study, we have examined the behavior of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of poultry litter. Heavy metals examined include As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn. Solid and gaseous streams were analyzed and compared with relevant guidelines to determine the potential environmental impact of combustion, and subsequent land spreading or landfill of the resulting ash. The majority of heavy metals were associated with the solid ash fraction, with low gaseous emissions. Pb and As were concentrated in the fine baghouse ash (160oC) due to their volatility. The remaining heavy metals, excluding Cd, were enriched in the heat exchangers and cyclone, where flue gas temperatures ranged from 580oC to 220oC. Under the waste acceptance criteria, all samples of process ash, excluding bed ash, exceeded the limits for non-hazardous landfill waste, as a result of high levels of water soluble Cr. Water soluble Cr indicated the presence of Cr(VI), and its presence was confirmed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (18.4 % to 38.3%). The source of Cr was identified as the bedding material (wood shavings), its conversion to Cr(VI) was temperature-dependent, and could be facilitated by the high alkali content found in poultry litter.


Girisuta, B.K. DussanD. HavertyJ.J. LeahyM.H.B. Hayes (2013) A kinetic study of acid catalysed hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse to levulinic acid, Chemical Engineering Journal 217:61-70

Click for abstract
There is a significant research effort worldwide to identify attractive chemical conversion routes for lignocellulosic biomass to organic (bulk-)chemicals. This study has focussed on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for the production of levulinic acid (LA), a platform chemical used for the synthesis of a variety of materials for applications such as fuel additives and polymer and resin precursors. The objectives of this study were to develop a broadly applicable kinetic model for the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to LA and to determine the optimum reaction conditions for its production. Systematic kinetic experiments were carried out by varying the reaction temperature between 150 and 200 °C, and the sulphuric acid concentration between 0.11 and 0.55 M. The highest LA yield was obtained at 150 °C and 0.55 M H2SO4 at 63 mol%, which equates to the production of 194 kg of LA from 1 dry tonne of sugar cane bagasse. The kinetic model developed was in good agreement with the experimental data and also with the previous kinetic models developed for cellulose and sugar cane bagasse. Our kinetic model, though developed for the sugar cane bagasse, can be applied over a wide range of hydrolysis reaction conditions for lignocellulosic biomass. Based on the optimisation study carried out using our kinetic model, an empirical equation is proposed to predict the LA yield at a particular temperature and acid concentration.


Troy S.M., Nolan T., Leahy J.J., Lawlor P.G., Healy M.G., Kwapinski W. (2013) Effect of sawdust addition and composting of feedstock on renewable energy and biochar production from pyrolysis of anaerobically digested pig manure, Biomass and Bioenergy

F. MelliganM.H.B. HayesW. KwapinskiJ.J. Leahy (2013) A study of hydrogen pressure during hydropyrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus and online catalytic vapour upgrading with Ni on ZSM-5, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis

Click for abstract
Hydropyrolysis, coupled with a secondary catalytic reactor was used as a method of producing a bio-oil from Miscanthus x giganteus with low levels of oxygenated compounds and high yields of saturated hydrocarbons. This study used analytical Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy for the analysis of products from the pyrolysis of Miscanthus. Hydropyrolysis was carried out at 600 °C, and the pyrolysis vapours then passed through a secondary reactor, which contained a 10% Ni on ZSM-5 catalyst. The hydrogen pressure for the separate reactions ranged from atmospheric pressure up to 30 bar. The results indicate that both hydrogen pressure and the incorporation of the Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts play an important role in the production of saturated hydrocarbons through the hydrogenation, dehydration and decarboxylation of oxygenated compounds. Also, in the absence of the catalyst the concentration of ethanoic acid can be significantly reduced with the increase in hydrogen pressure, and completely eliminated at 20 bar.

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Lynch, D., Henihan, A.M., Bowen, B., Lynch, D., McDonnell, K., Kwapinski, W.Leahy, J.J. (2013) Utilisation of poultry litter as an energy feedstock, Biomass and Bioenergy 49:197-204

Click for abstract
This paper examines poultry litter (PL) as a resource in fuel quality terms and illustrates how the small scale application of fluidised bed technology solves both energy and waste problems, while producing a nutrient rich ash. PL was found to have a higher heating value (HHV) of 18 GJ/t on a dry basis (db). On an as received basis (ar), it had an ash mass fraction of 9% and the elemental phosphorous content of the ash was 110 g/kg.The resultant mineral matter can be utilised as a nutrient substitute for mineral fertiliser.

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Lynch, D., Henihan, A.M., Kwapinski, W., Zhang, L., Leahy, J.J. (2013) Ash Agglomeration and Deposition during Combustion of Poultry Litter in a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Combustor, Energy and Fuels

Click for abstract
In this study, we have characterized the ash resulting from fluidized bed combustion of poultry litter as being dominated by a coarse fraction of crystalline ash composed of alkali-Ca-phosphates and a fine fraction of particulate K2SO4 and KCl. Bed agglomeration was found to be coating-induced with two distinct layers present. The inner layer (0.05–0.09 mm thick) was formed due to the reaction of gaseous potassium with the sand (SiO2) surface forming K-silicates with low melting points. Further chemical reaction on the surface of the bed material strengthened the coating forming a molten glassy phase. The outer layer was composed of loosely bound, fine particulate ash originating from the char. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations showed slag formation in the combustion zone is highly temperature-dependent, with slag formation predicted to increase from 1.8 kg at 600 °C to 7.35 kg at 1000 °C per hour of operation (5.21 kg of ash). Of this slag phase, SiO2 and K2O were the dominant phases, accounting for almost 95%, highlighting the role of K-silicates in initiating bed agglomeration. The remaining 5% was predicted to consist mainly of Al2O3, K2SO4, and Na2O. Deposition downstream in the low-temperature regions was found to occur mostly through the vaporization–condensation mechanism, with equilibrium decreasing significantly with decreasing temperatures. The dominant alkali chloride-containing gas predicted to form in the combustion zone was KCl, which corresponds with the high KCl content in the fine baghouse ash.

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Haverty, D.Dussan, K.Piterina, A. V.Leahy J. J.Hayes, M. H. B. (2012) Autothermal, single-stage, performic acid pretreatment of Miscanthus x giganteus for the rapid fractionation of its biomass components into a lignin/hemicellulose-rich liquor and a cellulase-digestible pulp, Bioresource Technology 109:173-177

Click for abstract
A novel approach to the performic acid pulping of biomass enables effective delignification and fractionation in a time frame not achieved heretofore. An autothermal decomposition reaction was triggered when 100 mg/L Fe2(SO4)3 in 4.0 M NaOH was added to 5% or 7.5% H2O2 in aqueous formic acid containing chipped Miscanthus x giganteus. Peroxy-decomposition resulted in pressures of 19 and 35 bar in the 5% and 7.5% peroxide liquors and reduced the lignin content in the resulting pulps to <6% within 140 and 30 min, respectively. Solubilised lignin was available for recovery from the liquor by subsequent dilution with water. Hemicellulose removal to the liquor was 68% and 89% for the 5% and 7.5% peroxide solutions. Crystalline cellulose yields were >99% and >95% and the rate of glucose release from cellulase digestion of the pulps in 24 h was more than 20-fold that for the raw Miscanthus

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Melligan, F.Dussan, K., Auccaise, R., Novotny, E. H., Leahy, J. J.Hayes, M. H. B.Kwapinski, W. (2012) Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of MiscanthusBioresource Technology 108:258-263

Click for abstract
Platform chemicals such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are major products formed during the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in second generation biorefining processes. Solid hydrolysis residues (HR) can amount to 50 wt.% of the starting biomass materials. Pyrolysis of the HRs gives rise to biochar, bio-liquids, and gases. Time and temperature were variables during the pyrolysis of HRs in a fixed bed tubular reactor, and both parameters have major influences on the amounts and properties of the products. Biochar, with potential for carbon sequestration and soil conditioning, composed about half of the HR pyrolysis product. The amounts (11–20 wt.%) and compositions (up to 77% of phenols in organic fraction) of the bio-liquids formed suggest that these have little value as fuels, but could be sources of phenols, and the gas can have application as a fuel.


Collins, M. N., Dalton, E., Schaller, B., Leahy, J. J., Birkinshaw, C. (2012) Crystal morphology of strained ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes, Polymer Testing 31:629-637

Girisuta B., Kalogiannis, K. G., Dussan, K.Leahy, J. J.Hayes, M. H. B., Stefanidis, S. (2012) An integrated process for the production of platform chemicals and diesel miscible fuels by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and downstream upgrading of the acid hydrolysis residues with thermal and catalytic pyrolysis, Bioresource Technology 126:92-100

Li Z.Wnetrzak R.Kwapinski W.Leahy J.J. (2012) Synthesis and characterisation of sulfated TiO2 nanorods and ZrO2/TiO2 nanorod composites for the esterification of bio-oil model organic acid, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 4:4499-4505

Melligan, FergusKarla Dussan, Ruben Auccaise, Etelvino H Novotny, James J LeahyMichael H.B. HayesWitold Kwapinski (2012) Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of Miscanthus, Bioresource Technology 108:258-263

Click for abstract
Platform chemicals such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are major products formed during the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in second generation biorefining processes. Solid hydrolysis residues (HR) can amount to 50 wt.% of the starting biomass materials. Pyrolysis of the HRs gives rise to biochar, bio-liquids, and gases. Time and temperature were variables during the pyrolysis of HRs in a fixed bed tubular reactor, and both parameters have major influences on the amounts and properties of the products. Biochar, with potential for carbon sequestration and soil conditioning, composed about half of the HR pyrolysis product. The amounts (11-20 wt.%) and compositions (up to 77% of phenols in organic fraction) of the bio-liquids formed suggest that these have little value as fuels, but could be sources of phenols, and the gas can have application as a fuel.


Melligan, F.J.J. LeahyW. KwapinskiM.H.B. Hayes (2012) Hydro-pyrolysis of biomass and on-line catalytic vapour upgrading with Ni-ZSM and Ni-MCM-41, Energy and Fuels 26:6080-6090

Click for abstract
A catalyst reactor coupled with analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS) was used to carry out online analysis of the product vapors from the fast pyrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus, Scots pine, and mahogany. Pyrolysis was carried out in both an inert atmosphere of He gas and in a highly reducing atmosphere of H2. Significant changes in the vapor compositions were achieved with the use of H2 as the carrier gas. The most notable of these were the increases in the hydrocarbon compositions. The roles of ZSM-5, Ni/ZSM-5, MCM-41, and of Ni/MCM-41 catalysts on the compositions of the pyrolysis vapors were investigated. Lower amounts of the higher molecular weight phenolic compounds and larger amounts of the lighter phenols were observed in the presence of Ni supported on ZSM-5 and MCM-41. This effect was more evident for the 10% than for the 2.5% Ni loadings. Overall, the results both from the use of H2 as the carrier gas and from all the catalysts demonstrates significant improvements in the composition of the vapors. However, this resulted in the lowering of the quantities of condensable products.


Troy S.M., Nolan T., Kwapinski W.Leahy J.J., Healy M.G., Lawlora P.G. (2012) Effect of sawdust addition on composting of separated raw and anaerobically digested pig manure, Journal of Environmental Management 111:70-77

Click for abstract
Manures need the addition of carbon-rich bulking agents to conserve N during composting, which increases the cost of the composting process. The recommended proportion of manure/sawdust, based on a carbon (C):nitrogen (N) ratio, is approximately 3:2. Two composting experiments were conducted to determine the impact of varying the proportion of sawdust to either separated raw, or separated anaerobically digested pig manures. To determine stability and maturity of the final compost, oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and germination index (GI) tests were conducted. For both experiments, three treatments were employed: manure-only (Treatment A), manure/sawdust mixed 4:1, fresh weight (Treatment B), and manure/sawdust mixed 3:2, fresh weight (Treatment C). The mixtures were composted in tumblers for 56 days with regular turning. The composting material was tested over the study duration for temperature, pH, water content, organic matter, C:N ratio and bulk density. For both Treatments B and C, the GI indicated low levels of phytotoxicity, and OUR values were lower than the recommended Irish threshold of 13 mmol O(2) kg OM(-1) h(-1), indicating that a high quality compost was produced. The proportion of sawdust to separated manure used can be reduced to make a cost saving, while still producing a stable end-product: 60% less sawdust is required to compost at a manure-to-sawdust ratio of 4:1 compared to the previously recommended ratio of 3:2.


Kolodynska, D., Wnetrzak, R.Leahy, JJHayes, MHBKwapinski, W, Hubicki, Z. (2012) Kinetic and adsorptive characterization of biochar in metal ions removal, Chemical Engineering Journal 197:295-305

Click for abstract
Kinetic and adsorption studies on the removal of metal ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in the biochar (BC) samples have been carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters have been investigated using the batch adsorption technique at different temperature. The effectiveness of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions removal increases with the increasing initial concentration of biochar and metal ion, pH as well as phase contact time. The maximum adsorption was found in the pH range 5.0–6.0. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Adsorption studies were also performed at different temperatures and modelled with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms.


Kwapinski, W.Byrne, C. M. P.Kryachko, E., Wolfram, P., Adley, C., Novotny, E., Hayes, M. H. B. (2010) Biochar from Biomass and Waste, Waste and Biomass Valorization 1(2):177-189

Click for abstract
There is an increasing realisation that biomass and organic wastes are valuable feedstocks for second generation biorefining processes that give rise to platform chemicals to substitute for dwindling petrochemical resources, and for pyrolysis processes that produce syngas, bio-oil, and biochar from biomass, organic wastes, and the biorefining residuals of the future. The experimental work described has focused on physical properties and compositions of biochars produced from miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), willow (Salix spp) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) at 500°C and at 400, 500, and 600°C in the case of the miscanthus. Although the morphologies of the cell structures were maintained in the pyrolysis, the surface area of the miscanthus biochar was greatly increased by heating at 600°C for 60 min. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed the disappearance of evidence for the carbohydrate and lignin plant components as the pyrolysis temperature was raised, and the compositions of miscanthus biochars after heating for 10 and for 60 min at 600°C were very similar and composed of fused aromatic structures and with no traces of the aliphatic components in the starting materials. In greenhouse and growth chamber experiments the growth of maize (Zea mays L) seedlings was found to be inhibited by soil amendments with biochar from miscanthus formed at 400°C for 10 min, but stimulated by miscanthus char formed at 600°C for 60 min. In the course of discussion the relevance of the results obtained is related to the roles that soil amendments with biochar can have on soil fertility, carbon sequestration, on the emissions of greenhouse gases from soil, on fertilizer requirements, and on waste management. It is clear that biochar soil amendments can have definite agronomic and environmental benefits, but it will be essential to have clear guidelines for biochar production from various feedstocks and under varying pyrolysis parameters. It will be equally important to have a classification system for biochars that clearly indicate the product compositions that will meet acceptable standards. A case can be made for sets of standard biochars from different substrates that meet the required criteria.



Conference Proceedings

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Melligan F.Leahy J. J.Hayes M.H.B.Kwapinski W. (2012) Hydro-pyrolysis of biomass and on-line catalytic vapour upgrading with Ni-ZSM-5 and Ni-MCM-41, COST UBIOCHEM, 3rd Workshop, Thessaloniki Greece, 1-3 November:17

Piterina AV, Chipman, K, Leahy, JJPembroke JTM.H.B. Hayes (2012) Method development and validation for in-vitro screening of mutagenic activity of biochars obtained from pyrolysis biorefinery processes in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains, Society for General Microbiology Spring Conference, Dublin, March 2012 :77


Presentations

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Lynch, D., Henihan, A.M., Kwapinski, W.Leahy, J.J. (2013) Closing the loop – on-farm fluidised bed combustion of poultry litter , 9 th International Conference on Renewable Resources and Biorefineries , Antwerp, Belgium, 5 – 7 June, 2013
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Leahy J. J., Xue G., Kwapinska M.Kwapinski W (2012) Torrefaction of Miscanthus x giganteus, International Workshop of Biomass Torrefaction for Energy, Ecole des Mines d'Albi, Albi France, 10-11 May 2012

Melligan F.Leahy J.J.Hayes M.H.B.Kwapinski W. (2012) Py–GC/MS of Miscanthus with Ni-ZSM-5 and Ni-MCM-41 under a hydrogen atmosphere, 19th International Symposium on Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Linz, Austria, 21-25 May


Posters

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Hayes, D. J. M.Leahy, J. J.Hayes, M. H. B. (2012) Analysis of European Biomass Feedstocks and Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Rapid Analytical Tool, DIBANET Networking Conference, Thessaloniki, Greece, Oct 31st
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Reports

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Kwapinski W.Leahy J.J. (2012) Feasibility study for the construction of a pilot/commercial - scale pyrolysis unit, Report for the Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability (FEASTA):38 pages

Research Areas

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Analysis of Feedstocks and Process Outputs

There are excellent facilities at the University of Limerick that facilitate our analytical work. Analytical protocols being conducted at Carbolea include: lignocellulosic components of potential biorefining materials; soil organic matter composition; biochar properties; and the products of conversion and catalytic processes.

 

 


Bio-Oil

Bio-Oil is being produced via fast and slow pyrolysis from various feedstocks, including municipal and agricultural wastes and energy crops such as Miscanthus. These bio-oils are then characterised via a variety of analytical methods. Various routes for upgrading the quality of these bio-oils are also being investigated.

 

 


Biochar

Carbolea researchers recognise the potential of bioochar as both a plant growth promoter and as a means of sequestering atmospheric carbon. How the biochar functions in these roles will depend on the production mechanisms employed and the particular ultrastructure that results. These are some of the biochar topics considered.

 

 


Biorefining and Second Generation Biofuels

Carbolea researchers have been active for some time in the field of biomass conversion to high-value end products and fuels (biorefining). Work here covers the evaluation and development of biorefining feedstocks and technologies

 

 


Catalysis and Downstream Processing

Carbolea Researchers are looking at the most effective catalysts to upgrade bio-oils and to convert the products from biorefining technologies to higher value chemicals and fuels

 

 


Effective Utilisation of Wastes

We recognise that waste materials can have real value, particularly in biorefining and pyrolysis schemes. Carbolea researchers are looking to analyse wastes and evaluate their value in such processes and also develop more effective methods for their utilisation.

 

 


Gasification

Gasification involves the thermal degradation of biomass. It differs from pyrolysis in that some oxygen is present during the process. The main product is a syngas that can be used for energy or for the production of biofuels and platform chemicals via catalytic upgrading.

 

 


Miscanthus

Miscanthus is a herbaceous energy crop that can be highly productive in Ireland. It has been studied and processed in many of the projects undertaken at Carbolea.

 

 


Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Near infrared spectroscopy is an important part of our analytical regime. It offers the potential for the rapid analysis of biomass feedstocks and the products of biomass conversion without the need for timely and costly wet chemical analytical techniques.

 

 


Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen and allows for the production of bio-oil. biochar, and biogas.

 

 



Projects

Current Projects

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DIBANET

Carbolea is co-ordinating a large FP7 project that involves close collaboration between 13 partners, 7 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The focus of this project is on the sustainable production of diesel miscible biofuels from the residues and wastes of both regions.

 

 


EPA Funded - Analysis of Irish Waste Materials

The EPA STRIVE programme has funded a project that will allow Carbolea researchers to analyse, in detail, the various waste materials that arise in Ireland. The laboratory analysis will be geared towards looking for components relevant to hydrolysis or thermochemical biorefining technologies. Near Infrared Spectroscopy will also be integrated into the analytical protocol and its utility in the rapid analysis of waste will be assessed. The primary compositional data will inform a comparison between utilising these waste materials in biorefineries compare with more traditional means of waste treatment.

 

 


Evaluate Agricultural Feedstocks and Biorefining Technologies

In association with the Department of Agriculture, UL researchers are undertaking a desk-based evaluation of biorefining technologies and feedstocks for Ireland with a focus on the products of the agricultural sector. This work also involves a signifcant amount of lab-work characterising these feedstocks.

 

 


Tar Mitigation in Biosyngas Production

This project examines the way to avoid the formation of tars in the gasification of biomass.

 

 


Formic Acid Derived from Biomass for Catalytic Olefins Hydrogenation

Formic acid (FA), is a by-product of some “second generation” biorefineries. This project investigates the catalytic vapor phase transfer hydrogenation of olefins (ethylene and propylene) by formic acid, and hydrogen production from fromic acid.

 

 


ReUseWaste

ReUseWaste is an Initial Training Network project funded under the Marie Curie action of the EU-FP7-PEOPLE-2011 program. It brings together major EU research groups, agri-environmental technology companies and public authorities from regions of intensive livestock production in Europe. The ReUseWaste network will train a group of young researchers in developing new technologies for socially and environmentally sustainable utilisation of resources in animal waste.

 

 


Char Production, Characterisation and Optimisation

A major project is underway, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, involving the production of biochar and the analysis of its properties and how these influence its utility as a plant growth promoter, pollution remediant, and means for sequestering atmospheric carbon.

 

 


Completed Projects

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Peat Analysis for Biorefining Processes

Various types of peats have been collected and analysed via wet chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The resulting compositional data have enabled predictions to be made concerning the value of these peats in various biorefining technologies.

 

 


Design and Operate a Pyrolysis/Gasification Unit

A laboratory scale pyrolysis/gasification unit has been designed and built. This facility will shortly be operational at Carbolea and will be used to process a variety of residues, wastes and dedicated agricultural crops.

 

 


News Articles

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21 Jan 2014

Deirdre Lynch awarded PhD

Carbolea member Deirdre Lynch today been awarded her PhD. Her thesis is entitled “Fluidised bed combustion of poultry litter with investigation into the ash chemistry”. Her work focused on every aspect of the process from input to output, and she was involved at every stage of the development and optimisation of the fluidised bed combustion unit. She conducted a detailed examination of the ash chemistry and inorganic elements which lead to agglomeration, and the behaviour of heavy metals contained in poultry litter during combustion.


31 Oct 2012

DIBANET Networking Day Held in Thessaloniki, Greece

The DIBANET research consortium presented the "Diesel miscible fuels from wastes, residues and non-food crops of Latin America & Europe" Networking event today at CERTH, in Thessaloniki, Greece.

The aim of the event was to bring together key players in scientific communities and industry to discuss how Europe and Latin America can work together to produce diesel fuels sustainably and cheaply. The DIBANET processes and the key results of the project were presented.

The presentations and posters are available in the "Agenda" and "Poster" sections of the DIBANET website.


29 Oct 2012

Final DIBANET Project Meeting Held in Thessaloniki, Greece

The final meeting of the DIBANET project was held between 29-31 October at the headquarters of project partner CERTH in Thessaloniki, Greece.

This meeting allowed for partners to put forward the excellent results that have been achieved in the project and to also discuss the final area remaining; the financial and technical modelling of the DIBANET process chain.


25 Jun 2012

DIBANET Project Meeting Held at Carbolea

A review meeting for the EU FP7 project DIBANET was held at Carbolea. This was attended by numerous project partners from Europe and Latin America. The meeting provided a valuable opportunity to present the recent progress made and to discuss ways in which this can be moved forward in a commercial context. The meeting also involved an excursion to the operational DIBANET pilot reactor system. Some photos are included below.


23 May 2012

Paper Published on Metal Ions Adsorption on Biochar

A paper has been published containing work conducted at the University of Limerick and at the Maria Cure-Sklodowska University in Lublin.

Abstract: Kinetic and adsorption studies on the removal of metal ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in the biochar (BC) samples have been carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters have been investigated using the batch adsorption technique at room temperature. The effectiveness of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions removal increases with the increasing initial concentration of biochar and metal ion, pH as well as phase contact time. The maximum adsorption was found in the pH range 5.0-6.0. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Adsorption studies were also performed at different temperatures and modelled with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms.

Kolodynska D., Wnetrzak R., , Leahy J.J., Hayes, M. H. B., Kwapinski, W., Hubicki Z. Adsorptive characterisation of biochar in heavy metal ions removal. Chemical Engineering Journal 2012 - in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.025


01 Mar 2012

Paper Published on Pyrolysis of Residues from the DIBANET Process

A paper has been published containing work by Carbolea members on the pyrolysis of the acid hydrolysis residues that are produced as a byproduct of the DIBANET process. The paper is entitled "Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of Miscanthus" and can be downloaded from ScienceDirect.

Abstract: Platform chemicals such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are major products formed during the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in second generation biorefining processes. Solid hydrolysis residues (HR) can amount to 50 wt.% of the starting biomass materials. Pyrolysis of the HRs gives rise to biochar, bio-liquids, and gases. Time and temperature were variables during the pyrolysis of HRs in a fixed bed tubular reactor, and both parameters have major influences on the amounts and properties of the products. Biochar, with potential for carbon sequestration and soil conditioning, composed about half of the HR pyrolysis product. The amounts (11–20 wt.%) and compositions (up to 77% of phenols in organic fraction) of the bio-liquids formed suggest that these have little value as fuels, but could be sources of phenols, and the gas can have application as a fuel.

Melligan, F., Dussan, K., Auccaise, R., Novotny, E. H., Leahy, J. J., Hayes, M. H. B., Kwapinski, W. (2012) Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of Miscanthus, Bioresource Technology, 108, 258-263


15 Jan 2012

Daniel Hayes and Corinna Byrne Graduate with PhDs

Daniel Hayes and Corinna Byrne today attended a graduation ceremeny and received their PhDs. Dan was supervised by Dr J. J. Leahy and his thesis was entitled "Analysis of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks for Biorefineries with a Focus on The Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Primary Analytical Tool". Corinna was supervised by Prof. Michael Hayes and her thesis was entitled "Studies of the Organic Matter Components in Irish Grassland Soils and Their Drainage Waters".

Daniel Hayes's PhD Viva presentation can be downloaded here, and the Thesis can also be downloaded from Carbolea: Volume 1, Volume 2.


11 Jan 2012

Paper on DIBANET Pretreatment Process Published Online

A new paper, written by several members of the Carbolea DIBANET team, was published online today. It covers the development of a new pretreatment process for biomass. The paper is entitled "Autothermal, single-stage, performic acid pretreatment of Miscanthus x giganteus for the rapid fractionation of its biomass components into a lignin/hemicellulose-rich liquor and a cellulase-digestible pulp" and can be obtained, by those with ScienceDirect subscriptions here or can be downloaded directly from Carbolea.

This work describes a novel pretreatment process suitable for Second Generation Biorefining, which is able to separate the main substrates in biomass through a fast and efficient oxidative reaction. A detailed compositional characterization of the products of the process is included, as well as the evaluation of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction separated from Miscanthus during the experiments. The paper shows how cellulose in biomass can be separated as a solid product from the lignin and hemicellulose components in solution in a hydrogen peroxide and formic acid system. The lignin is recovered as a precipitate when the solution extract is diluted with water.

Abstract: A novel approach to the performic acid pulping of biomass enables effective delignification and fractionation in a time frame not achieved heretofore. An autothermal decomposition reaction was triggered when 100 mg/L Fe2(SO4)3 in 4.0 M NaOH was added to 5% or 7.5% H2O2 in aqueous formic acid containing chipped Miscanthus x giganteus. Peroxy-decomposition resulted in pressures of 19 and 35 bar in the 5% and 7.5% peroxide liquors and reduced the lignin content in the resulting pulps to <6% within 140 and 30 min, respectively. Solubilised lignin was available for recovery from the liquor by subsequent dilution with water. Hemicellulose removal to the liquor was 68% and 89% for the 5% and 7.5% peroxide solutions. Crystalline cellulose yields were >99% and >95% and the rate of glucose release from cellulase digestion of the pulps in 24 h was more than 20-fold that for the raw Miscanthus.

Haverty, D., Dussan, K., Piterina, A. V., Leahy J. J., Hayes, M. H. B. (2012) Autothermal, single-stage, performic acid pretreatment of Miscanthus x giganteus for the rapid fractionation of its biomass components into a lignin/hemicellulose-rich liquor and a cellulase-digestible pulp, Bioresource Technology (109), 173-177


09 Jan 2012

DIBANET Meeting Takes Places in Santiago, Chile

A DIBANET project review meeting took place at the headquarters of project partner Fundacion Chile, in Santiago, Chile, between Jan 9-11. Extensive discussions took place regarding the significant work achieved so far in the project and how future work should proceed.


18 Nov 2011

Deirdre Undertakes Research at Monash University, Melbourne

Deirdre Lynch has availed of an EU-Oceania Social Science Inter-regional Consortium (EUOSSIC) Award to research with Dr Lian Zhang in the Chemical Engineering Department of Monash University, Melbourne. This will be a 9 month scholarship. Deirdre is conducting her research in collaboration with Dr Lian Zhang while in Monash University where she will undertake further investigation into the ash agglomeration issues associated with the combustion of poultry litter. This research will add to and enhance her PhD research, and it will establish collaborative links between the two Universities .


29 Jun 2011

DIBANET Meeting Takes Places in Thessaloniki, Greece

DIBANET held its second project review meeting in Thessaloniki on 29 June and 1 July. The meeting included a general review of work-to-date and advance on the different components of the project. The meeting was hosted by the Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI). In addition, partner leaders and technical presentations were attended by Hube Stassen, reviewer on behalf of FP7 direction and European expert on the thermochemical conversion of biomass.
Some of the most relevant progress is summarized as follow:

- A potential fast-pretreatment technology has been developed at the University of Limerick to fractionate biomass in an efficient and fast stage before the acid hydrolysis for the production of levulinic acid.

- Advances were shown at the University of Limerick regarding to the construction of a pilot-scale continuous unit that will evaluate optimal operational conditions both in the pretreatment and hydrolysis stage for the levulinic acid production.

- New materials and catalyst has been produced at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Buenos Aires that will be used in different processes such as ethyl levulinate production, biomass processing and bio-oil esterification.

- Evaluation of the use of Acid-Hydrolysis Residue for production of both bio-oil and bio-char were discussed by partners at Aston University and CPERI, as well as the quality of the products obtained regarding to bio-oil upgrading with acid-catalysts and soil amendment, respectively.

In consideration of new promising results and drawbacks during the last year, partners remarked on the importance of the partnership and feedback between the different parts of the general process that is being considered in DIBANET in order to address towards an efficient and commercial process evaluated be means of LCA analysis and economic studies.


12 May 2011

DIBANET Catalyst Workshop Takes Place at Carbolea

Members of the DIBANET research project team from Europe and Latin America recently came together for a two day research workshop hosted by Carbolea. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss progress in the development of the DIBANET process, with a heavy emphasis on the role of catalysis in the production of diesel miscible biofuels from European and Latin American feedstocks.

Acid hydrolysis of biomass feedstocks for the production of levulinic acid is being carried out in the DIBANET reactor system at the University of Limerick. Promising results from the development of a pre-treatment to reduce the recalcitrance of biomass, resulting in an improvement in the hydrolysis yields were discussed. A pre-treatment system utilising catalysts developed by partner UBA was also examined.

Latin American partner UFRJ are undertaking catalytic esterification reactions of levulinc acid and ethanol to produce ethyl levulinate and upgrading of bio-oil using catalysts developed in-house and by UBA.

The residual materials from the hyrdrolysis process are being examined by UK partner Aston University for their potential as a feedstock for pyrolysis to produce bio-oil. CERTH from Greece are investigating the role that catalysts can play in improving the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of the acid hydrolysis residues.


30 Apr 2011

Eight Postgraduate Positions Available at Carbolea (Now FIlled)

We are happy to announce that seven PhD positions and one MSc positions are available at Carbolea. These are listed below:

PhD Projects:

The Combustion of Biofuels under Combustor Relevant Conditions (2 PhDs Available)

Click Here for More Details

Use of functionalised mesoporous silicas for pyrolysis oil upgrading (One PhD Available)

Click Here for More Details

Catalytic conversion of biomethane to methanol and higher alcohols (2 PhDs Available)

Click Here for More Details

Tar mitigation in biosyngas production (One PhD Available)

Click Here for More Details

The hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol (One PhD Available)

Click Here for More Details

MSc Project:

The project will deal with catalytic conversion of some biomass derived intermediates to fuel additives. The student will work and be fully financially supported for 2 years by Science Foundation Ireland. For more details on this project contact Dmitri Bulushev.


01 Feb 2011

Paper Published on Pressurised Pyrolysis of Miscanthus

A paper, entitled "Pressurised pyrolysis of Miscanthus using a frixed bed reactor" has been published.It can be downloaded from ScienceDirect.

Abstract: Miscanthus x giganteus was pyrolysed, in a fixed bed reactor in a constant flow of dinitrogen gas, at a rate of 13 °C/min from ambient to 550 °C, then held for 25 min at this temperature. The pressures employed ranged from atmospheric to 26 bar. The major compounds identified in the bio-oil were water, phenol, and phenol derivatives. The water contents impact on the usefulness of the bio-oil as a fuel. However, the phenols could provide useful platform chemicals and products.

Melligan, F., Auccaise, R., Novotny, E. H., Leahy, J. J., Hayes, M. H. B., Kwapinski, W. (2011) Pressurised pyrolysis of Miscanthus using a frixed bed reactor, Bioresource Technology, 102, 3466-3470


02 Jul 2010

DIBANET Press Release Following Buenos Aires Meeting

Today a press release was issued regarding the recent DIBANET meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It covers the advances made to date in the project. The press release can be accessed here.


27 Jun 2010

Presentations by Carbolea Members at IHSS Symposium in Teneriffe

Carbolea members present their research at the 15th Meeting of the International Humic Substances SocietyHumic Substances and the Maintenance of Ecosystem Services”, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain 27th June – 2nd July 2010.

Michael H.B. Hayes has been invited to give a keynote lecture on ‘Evolution of Modern Concepts of the Compositions of Humic Substances’. The presentation will look at how research using advanced analytical techniques has shaped our knowledge about the compositions of humic substances.

Michael will also present a paper co-authored by Corinna M.P. Byrne and colleagues Prof. Roger S. Swift and Dr. Andre J. Simpson. This paper “Humin: The Simplest of the Humic Substances?” will describe in details how the structure of humin, the most recalcitrant fraction of soil organic matter, has been unravelled. The paper can be downloaded here.

A poster on “Changes in dissolved organic matter losses from soils under different management” authored by Corinna M.P. Byrne, Michael H.B. Hayes and Dr. Andre J Simpson will be presented which summaries the research finding recently published by Byrne et al., 2010 in Water Research. This poster can be downloaded here and the paper here.

Oceans are the largest global carbon pool and are estimated to hold approximately 38,000 PgC (petagrams of carbon). The oceanic sediments contain 150 Pg of organic matter (OM). Rosaleen Mylotte will present her work on the Study of Estuarine Sediments in Galway Bay, Ireland both orally and by poster. This work, co-authored by Prof. Michael HB Hayes and Dr. Catherine Dalton (Mary Immaculate College, Limeick, Ireland), examines core samples from the transitional waters in Galway Bay. A main focus of the study is the effect that the estuary is having on the bay especially, with regards to the organic matter (OM) present. OM is washed into the Bay from the River Corrib and its tributary streams. OM is a reservoir of carbon (in sediments) and an important sink. Studying the organic and inorganic colloidal components contained within the estuarine sediments can give indications of changes that have occurred over time to the composition of the matter transported to the estuary and will provide an insight into the composition of carbon sequestered in the sediments. The project is studying in detail the compositions of the HS at different depths and their associations with the sediments. The poster can be downloaded here.

Research data from Carbolea’s work on Biochar will also be presented in Tenerife. A paper entitled “Properties of Biochar Produced from Miscanthus x giganteus and its Influence the Growth of Maize (Zea mays L.)” authored by Dr. Witold Kwapinski, P. Wolfram, Corinna M.P. Byrne, Fergus Melligan, Dr. Etelvino H. Novotny, Dr. J.J. Leahy, Prof. Michael H.B. Hayes, will be presented which summaries the research finding recently published by Kwapinski et al., 2010 in Waste and Biomass Valorization. The IHSS paper abstract can be downloaded here.

Work on the “Extraction of High-Value Lipids from Irish Peats” will be presented as a poster by Raymond McInerney, co-authored by Daniel J. Hayes, Dr. J.J. Leahy and Prof. Michael HB. Hayes.

 


28 May 2010

Carbolea's Biochar Research Accepted for Publication

A paper by members of Carbolea entitled “Biochar from Biomass and Waste” has been published in the new journal Waste and Biomass Valorization. This paper examines the roles that soil amendments with biochar can have on soil fertility, carbon sequestration, on the emissions of greenhouse gases from soil, on fertilizer requirements, and on waste management. Results from Carbolea research are presented, showing that biochars produced under different conditions can have varying effects in plant growth. This further strengthens the need for a biochar classification system. The paper can be downloaded here.


18 May 2010

DIBANET Meeting in Buenos Aires

DIBANET held its first project review meeting in Buenos Aires on May 18-19. This meeting included the presentation of results to date and discussion of future strategies for the project by DIBANETs project partners. The progress to date, is summarised below:

  • A reactor system for the production of levulinic acid (an important cellulosic fuel
    precursor) from biomass is now operational at Carbolea.

  • Aston University (UK) and CERTH (Greece) have analysed and pyrolysed the
    residues from this system and are working towards the production of diesel miscible biofuels from these, so eliminating waste from the process and maximising potential revenue.

  • University Federal Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and the University of Buenos Aires
    (Argentina) have made exciting new developments regarding catalysts for both the upgrading of bio-oils from pyrolysis and the conversion of carbohydrates and levulinic acid.

  • It was agreed that the project should focus on the processing of sugarcane bagasse (from Latin America) and Miscanthus (from Europe) in the hydrolysis reactor. The end target is the design of a commercial system for a Brazilian sugarmill.

  • Project partners demonstrated that Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a highly effective technology for rapid feedstock analysis and evaluation, subsequent work will focus on the potential for applying such a system at future biorefineries and sugar mills - “Such a system will allow suppliers of feedstock to be paid based on the biofuel potential of their material” said Daniel Hayes.

These developments have allowed advances to be made at many key points of this DIBANET process chain. Project Co-ordinator Prof. Michael H.B. Hayes said “The exciting results presented at this meeting show the great advances that can occur when leading research groups from Europe and Latin America work together for the greater good of both regions. This is only the first such meeting for DIBANET and we envisage even greater advances in the coming years. Our focus on the production of diesel miscible biofuels from waste materials through abiotic processes offers us a great competitive advantage in the crowded biofuels sector and the concerted effort of all partners is towards the development of a commercial system. Following this meeting I am more confident than ever about us achieving that goal”.


The importance of this research to the industry was underlined by the hosting of this event at the headquarters of YPF, a large Argentinian oil company. YPF will analyse and evaluate the range of biofuels produced from the DIBANET technologies.


18 Feb 2010

Carbolea Presence at National Bioenergy Conference 2010

Michael Hayes, JJ Leahy and Raymond McInerney attended "The National Bioenergy Conference 2010 ‘Developing and Financing Bioenergy". This event was organised by Teagasc and the Irish Bioenergy Association and took place at The Tipperary Institute in Thurles. Carbolea has numerous active projects in the area of bioenergy.


06 Oct 2009

Research Areas Update: Pyrolysis and Gasification

The webpage explaining the background to pyrolysis and gasification, two key areas of research at Carbolea, has been expanded today. Figures have been added to illustrate these thermochemical processes and a diagram of the bench-scale slow pyrolysis unit has been included. Witold Kwpainski and JJ Leahy are the persons with most involvement in this area. More details can be found on the appropriate webpage.


05 Oct 2009

Project Update: Gasifier/Pyrolysis Reactor Design

The webpage detailing our work, on the design and construction of a pilot-scale 10kg/hr pyrolyser/gasifier here at the University of Limerick has been updated. Witold Kwpainski and JJ Leahy are the persons with most involvement in this project. More details can be found on the appropriate webpage.


05 Oct 2009

Project Update: Analysis of Peat as a Feedstock for Biorefineries

The webpage detailing our work, on the analysis of peats and evaluation as to their suitability for processing in varioud biorefining technologies, has been updated today. Daniel Hayes and Raymond McInerney are the people with most involvement in this project, the updated material can be found here.


25 Sep 2009

Carbolea Booth at IRCSET 2009 Symposium

Carbolea today occupied one of the four display booths at the IRCSET 2009 Symposium "Innovation Fuelling the Smart Society". The booth displayed a slide show and posters representing many of Carbolea's current projects. These posters included:

"Biomass Pyrolysis and Gasification and Their Applications" by Witold Kwapinski

"DIBANET - Development of Integrated Biomass Approaches Network" by Corinna Byrne

"Analysis of Biomass Feedstocks and Evaluation of Suitability for Biorefining and Pyrolysis Schemes" by Daniel Hayes

"Pyrolysis of Biomass to produce Bio-Oil" by Fergus Melligan

"Enhancements of Soil Fertility from Biochar Amendments" by Katerina Kryachko

Much of Daniel Hayes's PhD work was funded by IRCSET.


01 Dec 2008

New Peat Evaluation Project Starts

December sees the start of a new project at Carbolea, funded by Bord na Mona. This inolves the the detailed analysis and characterisation of various peats in order to ascertain their potential in various biorefining and/or pyrolysis technologies. The Project will inolve Daniel Hayes, Ainara Melus and Enrico Perelli.


26 May 2008

Successful Launch of the CPI

The Charles Parsons Initiative, of which Carbolea is a member, was officially lauched today.The launch was addressed by Minister Eamon Ryan (Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources), Professor Son Barry (President of the University of Limerick), and Lord Oxburgh of Liverpool (ex-chairman of Shell and chairman of D1 Oils). There were also world renowned experts in the fields of biomass, wind, biofuels, ocean energy and energy storage. The event was well attended by stakeholders from various fields.

The programme can be downloaded here and many presentations can be downloaded from the CPI website while those relating to the areas of study in Carbolea can be downloaded below:

Lord Oxburgh of Liverpool - "Some Thoughts on Biofuels..."

Daniel Hayes - "Biorefining, Work at Carbolea and the Biofine Process"

Dr. Dmitri Bulushev and Prof. Julian Ross - "Catalysis for Hydrogen and Transport Fuel Production from Biomass"

Dr. JJ Leahy and Dr. Witold Kwapinski - Thermochemical Conversion/Biomass Gasification

Prof. Austin Darragh - "Sir Charles Parsons and the Evolution of an Energy Led Economy"

Katerina Kryachko - "Bio-char and Plant Growth"



 

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