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Prof. Julian Ross

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contact

Prof. (Research) Julian Ross MRIA

Department:

Chemical and Environmental Science

Address:

Foundation Bldg., Uni. of Limerick

Position:

Adjunct Professor

Qualifications:

DSc (Queens University)

Email:

Julian.Ross@ul.ie

Julian Ross holds an Emeritus position and holds the title “Research Professor”. He is a member of the Carbolea Group within the Charles Parsons Initiative. His research group within this Centre currently consists of a senior research fellow and a PhD student.  The aim of the work in the group is to gain an understanding of and improve the properties of heterogeneous catalysts for processes associated with biomass conversion, particularly the production of hydrogen.   Central to this research is the relationship between the preparation, characterisation and properties of the appropriate catalysts. Equipment in the group includes a series of computer-controlled micro-reactors, two Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometers, including in-situ diffuse reflectance cells for studies of surface species, and a computer-controlled micro-balance system which allows catalytic reactions to be carried out in situ.  

Julian Ross has recently published a new “living” textbook on catalysis: “Heterogeneous Catalysis – Fundamentals and Applications” which can also be obtained here.

Julian Ross is also author or co-author of some 200 regular scientific publications. His “Hirsh Index” (h index) is currently 37. Some of the most recent publications from his group are listed separately.  A list of the top 37 of his most cited papers (with the number of citations up to 1st November 2011) is also given separately.

Julian Ross was for 25 years, until 2011, Senior Editor of Catalysis Today (Elsevier Science Publishers).   He is a Member of the Royal Irish Academy (MRIA) and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC). He holds a DSc of the Queen's University of Belfast. He is an Honorary Visiting Professor at Tianjin University, China, and also at the Centre for Eco- and Environmental Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

 

Academic Career

1991 – 2006

Professor of Industrial Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, University of Limerick

1994-2003

Dean, College of Science, University of Limerick

1991-1994

Head of Department of Chemical and Life Sciences

1982-1991

Professor of Catalytic Processes and Materials, University of Twente, The Netherlands

1979-1991

Senior Lecturer in Physical Chemistry, University of Bradford, U.K.

1969-1979

Lecturer in Physical Chemistry, University of Bradford, U.K.

1966-1968

Research Assistant, University of Bradford, U.K.

1963-1966

PhD student, Queen’s University of Belfast, Northern Ireland

1959-1963

BSc student, Queen’s University of Belfast

 

Other Activities

1979-1998

Editor, News Brief Section of Applied Catalysis

1986-2011

Senior Editor, Catalysis Today

1991-2003

Member of the Council of the Federation of European Catalysis Societies

2006-2008

Treasurer of the Royal Irish Academy

2001

Principal Organiser of Europacat 5, held at the University of Limerick

2004-2008

Member of Council, Royal Irish Academy, Treasurer 2006-2008

2001-2006

Member of INTAS Council of Scientists, Chairman 2003-2006

2001-2011

Member of Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology

2000 - present

Honorary Visiting Professor, Tianjin University, China

2003 – present

Honorary Visiting Professor, CEEC, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

2006 – present

Member International Advisory Board, Chinese Key Laboratory for C1 Conversion, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian, China

1998-1999

Visiting Professor, University of Strasbourg, France

 

Member of Editorial Board of “Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering”, Higher Education Press (Beijing) and Springer (New Yok).


Material/Downloads

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Summary Statistics

Carbolea
Total

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

Total
for Last
5 Years

Journal Papers

6

0

0

0

0

0

0

Book Chapters

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Conference Papers

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Presentations

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

Posters

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Videos

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Reports

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Patents

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Untitled Document

Journal Articles

Untitled Document

Bulushev, D.A.Jia, L., Beloshapkin, S., Ross, J.R.H. (2012) Improved hydrogen production from formic acid on a Pd/C catalyst doped by potassium, Chemical Communications 48:4184-4186

Click for abstract
The rate of hydrogen production from vapour-phase formic acid decomposition can be increased by 1–2 orders of magnitude by doping a Pd/C catalyst with potassium ions. Surface potassium formate and/or bicarbonate species could be involved in the rate-determining step of this reaction.


Bulushev, D.A., Beloshapkin, S.,, Plyusnin, P.E., Shubin, Y.V., Bukhtiyarov, V.I., Korenev, S.V., Ross, J.R.H. (2012) Vapour phase formic acid decomposition over PdAu/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts: Effect of composition of metallic particles, Journal of Catalysis

Bulushev,D.A. Ross,J.R.H. (2011) Catalysis for conversion of biomass to fuels via pyrolysis and gasification: a review, Catalysis Today 171(1):1–13

Click for abstract
A current aim of society is to produce fuels from non-food biomass and catalysis is central to achieving this aim. Catalytic steam-reforming of biomass gives synthesis gas and this can be further transformed to give transport fuels using catalysis. Biofuels and fuel additives can also be obtained by catalytic upgrading of bio-oil produced by non-catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. This upgrading can be performed by low temperature esterification with alcohols (followed by water separation) or by high temperature gasification, cracking or hydrotreating processes. Upgraded bio-oil can also be obtained by pyrolysis of biomass in the presence of catalysts. This review considers recent trends in the chemistry of these processes for biofuel production and the catalysts used.

Download

Bulushev,D.ARoss,J.R.H. (2011) Vapour phase hydrogenation of olefins by formic acid over a Pd/C catalyst, Catalysis Today 163(1):42-46

Click for abstract
It has been found that ethylene and propylene could be effectively hydrogenated by formic acid vapour over a Pd/carbon catalyst at low temperatures (<440 K). Surface hydrogen formation from formic acid is the rate-determining step for this hydrogenation reaction. Interaction of this hydrogen with the olefins is then fast. The conversion of formic acid in the presence of either of the olefins at any temperature is higher than in their absence. This has been explained by a much lower surface hydrogen concentration in the presence of the olefins. Direct experiments have confirmed that hydrogen inhibits the formic acid decomposition. Water vapour addition has a small positive effect on the decomposition of formic acid as well as on the hydrogenation of the olefins with formic acid. Catalysts consisting of gold supported on carbon or titania are both active in the production of hydrogen from formic acid. However, in contrast to the Pd/C catalyst, neither gives hydrogenation of the olefins with this acid.

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Nagaraja,B.M.Bulushev,D.A., Beloshapkin,S., Ross,J.R.H.  (2011) Effect of potassium on the activity and stability of Ni-MgO-ZrO2 catalysts for the dry reforming of methane to give synthesis gas, Catalysis Today

Click for abstract
It has been found that the addition of 0.5wt.% potassium to a catalyst consisting of 8wt.% Ni supported on a MgO–ZrO2 support prepared by co-precipitation improved both the activity and stability of this material for the dry reforming of methane. Increasing the content of potassium caused a decrease in the catalytic activity but the stabilities of the resultant catalysts were still higher than those for the undoped catalyst. The BET surface areas of the catalysts increased with potassium content.


Bulushev,D.A. , Beloshapkin,S., Ross,J.R.H. (2010) Hydrogen from formic acid decomposition over Pd and Au catalysts, Catalysis Today 154(1-2):7-12

Click for abstract
Vapour phase decomposition of formic acid has been studied systematically over a range of catalysts: 1.0 and 10 wt.% Pd/C, 0.8 wt.% Au/C and 1.0 wt.% Au/TiO2. The mean metal particle size of these materials was estimated by HRTEM and turnover frequencies were calculated using these data. The Au/C catalyst was the least active and the Pd/C catalysts were the most active for the formic acid decomposition reaction. At about 400 K, these Pd catalysts gave up to 0.04 moles of H2 per minute per gram of Pd, with a selectivity of 95–99%. The H2 selectivity for these catalysts was found to be only weakly dependent on the reaction temperature and the formic acid conversion. The Au/TiO2 catalyst showed only a moderate selectivity to H2 formation (<70%). The selectivity of this catalyst was improved considerably by the introduction of water vapour. This improvement derived from the high activity of the catalyst for the water–gas shift reaction.

Download

Book Chapters

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Hayes, D. J., Fitzpatrick, S. W., Hayes, M. H. B.Ross, J. R. H. (2005) The Biofine Process: Production of levulinic acid, furfural and formic acid from lignocellulosic feedstocks, Biorefineries: Industrial Processes and Products, B. Kamm, P. R. Gruber , M. Kamm, Wiley, Weinheim, Germany 1:139-164
Download

Presentations

Untitled Document

Bulushev, D.A.Jia, L., Beloshapkin, S., Ross, J.R.H. (2012) Hydrogen from Decomposition of Biomass Derived Formic Acid over Pd/C Catalysts Doped by Alkali Metals, Advances in catalysis for biomass utilisation, Thessaloniki, Greece, July 2012

Ross, J.R.H.Jia, L., Beloshapkin, S., Bulushev, D. A. (2012) Hydrogen from biomass: The catalytic decomposition of formic acid, 244th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, USA , August 2012

Bulushev, D.A.Jia, L., Beloshapkin, S., Ross, J. R. H. (2012) Heterogeneous Catalysts for Effective Hydrogen Production from Biomass Derived Formic Acid, 15th World Congress of Catalysis, Munich, Germany, July 2012

Bulushev, D.A.Jia, L., Beloshapkin, S., Ross, J.R.H. (2012) Effective hydrogen production from biomass derived formic acid on K-doped Pd/C catalysts, 243rd ACS National Meeting, San Diego, USA, March 2012

Research Areas

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Biorefining and Second Generation Biofuels

Carbolea researchers have been active for some time in the field of biomass conversion to high-value end products and fuels (biorefining). Work here covers the evaluation and development of biorefining feedstocks and technologies

 

 


Catalysis and Downstream Processing

Carbolea Researchers are looking at the most effective catalysts to upgrade bio-oils and to convert the products from biorefining technologies to higher value chemicals and fuels

 

 


Effective Utilisation of Wastes

We recognise that waste materials can have real value, particularly in biorefining and pyrolysis schemes. Carbolea researchers are looking to analyse wastes and evaluate their value in such processes and also develop more effective methods for their utilisation.

 

 


Gasification

Gasification involves the thermal degradation of biomass. It differs from pyrolysis in that some oxygen is present during the process. The main product is a syngas that can be used for energy or for the production of biofuels and platform chemicals via catalytic upgrading.

 

 



Projects

Current Projects

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DIBANET

Carbolea is co-ordinating a large FP7 project that involves close collaboration between 13 partners, 7 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The focus of this project is on the sustainable production of diesel miscible biofuels from the residues and wastes of both regions.

 

 


Formic Acid Derived from Biomass for Catalytic Olefins Hydrogenation

Formic acid (FA), is a by-product of some “second generation” biorefineries. This project investigates the catalytic vapor phase transfer hydrogenation of olefins (ethylene and propylene) by formic acid, and hydrogen production from fromic acid.

 

 


Completed Projects

Untitled Document

Novel Catalysts for the Dry Reforming of Methane to Syngas and Hydrogen

This project examines various types of catalysts for the dry reforming of methane to produce a synthesis gas (syngas) and/or hydrogen.

 

 


News Articles

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15 Feb 2013

Catalysis Crossword Puzzles Published on Carbolea

A web site that provides supplementary material for the book:

"Heterogeneous Catalysis – Fundamentals and Applications" by Julian R.H. Ross (Elsevier, 2011)

Is now available on the Elsevier Store and on the corresponding TEC product pages:
 
Elsevier Store: By selecting the resources tab, you will see the link to the online companion materials. 

TEC Site: By clicking on the companion material button, you go to the website.

One of the features of this supplementary material, which includes web links given in the text of the book and PowerPoint slides corresponding to the contents of each chapter, is a set of crossword puzzles based on the material included in Chapters 2-8.  On the Elsevier web pages, these puzzles are included as Word documents and the solutions are given in separate Word documents. The puzzles are also available as interactive web pages from the links given below, the advantage of these being that they can be handled on the computer screen without the necessity to print them out.  The web version also has a “hint” function that allows a letter in the puzzle lattice to be displayed as an aid to making progress if needed.

Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8

NOTE: For technical reasons, not all the puzzles have exactly the same format as on the Elsevier web pages.  However, the words in each puzzle (and the corresponding clues) are unchanged.

chapter_7_crossword

An Electronic Version of the Book is Now Available

The original idea of the book was that it would be available for student use in electronic format in such a way that students could use it on laptops or tablets.  However, at the time of publication, the cost of this option was the same as that of the printed text. Elsevier is now offering an option to purchase the book in electronic form from Science Direct at a cost of €70.58 per copy for one year’s use for up to five users. It is to be hoped that this option will make it more suitable for student use than the option of purchasing print copies.


10 Aug 2011

Review of Catalysis in Biomass Conversion Published

Carbolea members Dmitri Bulushev and Julian R.H. Ross have published a review article entitled "Catalysis for conversion of biomass to fuels via pyrolysis and gasification: a review". This review has entered the list of Top Hottest Downloaded articles of the Catalysis Today journal for January-March, 2011. It is expected that it will be still in this list in the future. This review contains 126 references and can be strongly recommended for students and researchers who are starting their work on catalytic conversion of biomass via pyrolysis and gasification. The paper can be obtained from ScienceDirect or downloaded directly from Carbolea.

Abstract. A current aim of society is to produce fuels from non-food biomass and catalysis is central to achieving this aim. Catalytic steam-reforming of biomass gives synthesis gas and this can be further transformed to give transport fuels using catalysis. Biofuels and fuel additives can also be obtained by catalytic upgrading of bio-oil produced by non-catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. This upgrading can be performed by low tem- perature esterification with alcohols (followed by water separation) or by high temperature gasification, cracking or hydrotreating processes. Upgraded bio-oil can also be obtained by pyrolysis of biomass in the presence of catalysts. This review considers recent trends in the chemistry of these processes for biofuel production and the catalysts used.

Bulushev,D.A., Ross,J.R.H. Catalysis for conversion of biomass to fuels via pyrolysis and gasification: a review. Catalysis Today 171 (2011) 1


08 Jul 2011

Julian Ross Book Published

Carbolea member Julian R.H. Ross has written a book “Heterogeneous Catalysis. Fundamentals and Applications” which is expected to be released in November, 2011 by Elsevier.

Heterogeneous catalysis plays a part in the production of more than 80% of all chemical products. It is therefore essential that all chemists and chemical engineers have an understanding of the fundamental principles as well as the applications of heterogeneous catalysts. This book introduces the subject, starting at a basic level, and includes sections on adsorption and surface science, catalytic kinetics, experimental methods for preparing and studying heterogeneous catalysts, as well as some aspects of the design of industrial catalytic reactors. It ends with a chapter that covers a range of examples of important catalytic processes.

The book leads the student to carrying out a series of "tasks"; based on searches of the internet and also on the use of web-based search tools such as Scopus or Web of Science. These tasks are generally based on the text; they can be used entirely for self-study but they can also be tailored to the requirements of a particular course by the instructor/lecturer giving the course.

The author has had over 40 years of experience in catalytic research as well as in lecturing on the principles of catalysis. He was for more than 20 years the Editor of Catalysis Today.


26 Jun 2011

Funding for Catalytic Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Fuels

Dmitri Bulushev and Julian R.H. Ross have got funding (about 90,000 euros) from Science Foundation of Ireland for 2 years Research Frontiers Programme project. The title of the project is “The catalytic conversion of levulinic acid derived from biomass to fuel additives”. The project will start on 1st September 2011.


30 Apr 2011

Eight Postgraduate Positions Available at Carbolea (Now FIlled)

We are happy to announce that seven PhD positions and one MSc positions are available at Carbolea. These are listed below:

PhD Projects:

The Combustion of Biofuels under Combustor Relevant Conditions (2 PhDs Available)

Click Here for More Details

Use of functionalised mesoporous silicas for pyrolysis oil upgrading (One PhD Available)

Click Here for More Details

Catalytic conversion of biomethane to methanol and higher alcohols (2 PhDs Available)

Click Here for More Details

Tar mitigation in biosyngas production (One PhD Available)

Click Here for More Details

The hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol (One PhD Available)

Click Here for More Details

MSc Project:

The project will deal with catalytic conversion of some biomass derived intermediates to fuel additives. The student will work and be fully financially supported for 2 years by Science Foundation Ireland. For more details on this project contact Dmitri Bulushev.


12 Apr 2011

Paper Published on Hydrogenation by Biomass Derived Formic Acid

Dmitri Bulushev and Julian R.H. Ross have published a paper entitled "Vapour phase hydrogenation of olefins by formic acid over a Pd/C catalyst". This paper can be obtained from ScienceDirect or downloaded directly from Carbolea.

Abstract: It has been found that ethylene and propylene could be effectively hydrogenated by formic acid vapour over a Pd/carbon catalyst at low temperatures (<440 K). Surface hydrogen formation from formic acid is the rate-determining step for this hydrogenation reaction. Interaction of this hydrogen with the olefins is then fast. The conversion of formic acid in the presence of either of the olefins at any temperature is higher than in their absence. This has been explained by amuch lower surface hydrogen concentration in the presence of the olefins. Direct experiments have confirmed that hydrogen inhibits the formic acid decomposition. Water vapour addition has a small positive effect on the decomposition of formic acid as well as on the hydrogenation of the olefins with formic acid. Catalysts consisting of gold supported on carbon or titania are both active in the production of hydrogen from formic acid. However, in contrast to the Pd/C catalyst, neither gives hydrogenation of the olefins with this acid.

Bulushev,D.A., Ross,J.R.H. Vapour phase hydrogenation of olefins by formic acid over a Pd/C catalyst. Catalysis Today, 2011, v. 163, p. 42-46


01 Sep 2010

Paper Published on Hydrogen from Biomass Derived Formic Acid

Dmitri Bulushev and Julian R.H. Ross have published a paper entitled "Hydrogen from formic acid decomposition over Pd and Au catalysts". This paper can be obtained from ScienceDirect or downloaded directly from Carbolea.

Abstract: Vapour phase decomposition of formic acid has been studied systematically over a range of catalysts: 1.0 and 10 wt.% Pd/C, 0.8 wt.% Au/C and 1.0 wt.% Au/TiO2. The mean metal particle size of these materials was estimated by HRTEM and turnover frequencies were calculated using these data. The Au/C catalyst was the least active and the Pd/C catalysts were the most active for the formic acid decomposition reaction. At about 400 K, these Pd catalysts gave up to 0.04 moles of H2 per minute per gram of Pd, with a selectivity of 95–99%. The H2 selectivity for these catalysts was found to be only weakly dependent on the reaction temperature and the formic acid conversion. The Au/TiO2 catalyst showed only a moderate selectivity to H2 formation (<70%). The selectivity of this catalyst was improved considerably by the introduction of water vapour. This improvement derived from the high activity of the catalyst for the water–gas shift reaction.

Bulushev,D.A., Beloshapkin,S., Ross,J.R.H.Hydrogen from formic acid decomposition over Pd and Au catalysts. Catalysis Today, 2010, v. 154, p. 7-12


04 Oct 2009

Project Update: Dry Reforming of Methane to Syn-Gas

The webpage detailing our work, on the dry reforming of methane with CO2 for the production of a syngas, has been updated today. Recent material includes observations on the efficacy of various catalysts for this process. Bhari Mallanna Nagaraja is the person with most involvement in this project, the updated material can be found here.


03 Oct 2009

Project Update:Formic Acid for Hydrogenation

The webpage detailing our work on the use of formic acid, which can be a by-product of some biorefining schemes (such as the one being developed in DIBANET), as a hydrogen donor has been updated. Dmitri Bulushev is the person with most involvement in this project. More details can be found on the appropraite webpage.


06 Jul 2009

FUNLEVEL Proposal Passes Stage 2 FP7 Evaluation Threshold

The Evaluation Summary Report for FUNLEVEL, a proposal for a project to be co-ordinated by Carbolea and submitted under the FP7-2009-BIOREFINERY Call "Sustainable Biorefineries", was received today. The proposal is one of only 5 proposals (from a total of over 60) to make the threshold score for eligbility for funding. The following months will determine whether this will equate to the start of negotiation phase for the project and its ultimate funding. The full title for FUNLEVEL is "Catalytic Conversion of Biomass into FUraN and LEVulinic Acid Derivatives for Applications in Biofuels and Biopolymers", it is a 48 month project, with 14 partners and a total budget of €12.2m with €2.4m allocated for Carbolea. An abstract of the proposal is available on this site.


05 May 2009

Carbolea Researchers on Morning Ireland Radio Show

In a recorded interview with Eleanor Burnhill of the RTE Morning Ireland Programme Professors Michael Hayes and Julian Ross outlined the ongoing studies on the utilisations of biomass at the Carbolea Group, located in the CES Department of the University of Limerick. They stressed how biorefining operations give platform chemicals, fuels and fuel additives, and biorefinery residuals (BRs), and indicated how pyrolysis of BRs gives bio-oil, which can be upgraded to fuel additive grade, biochar, an excellent soil amender and carbon sequesterer, and fuel gases. Excerpts from the recording have been used in Morning Ireland programmes. At a Biochar meeting at the University of Edinburgh on April 1, Professor Hayes spoke with Jerry Harrison, a Harvard graduate in the Environmental Sciences area, and a former lead musician with the famed Talking Heads. Jerrry has a strong interest in biochar. Hayes informed Miss Burnhill of the Harrison interest. When she interviewed him for Morning Ireland he reiterated his belief in the environmental benefits of Biochar, and indicated that he had interested Bono in the benefits of the product.


26 May 2008

Successful Launch of the CPI

The Charles Parsons Initiative, of which Carbolea is a member, was officially lauched today.The launch was addressed by Minister Eamon Ryan (Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources), Professor Son Barry (President of the University of Limerick), and Lord Oxburgh of Liverpool (ex-chairman of Shell and chairman of D1 Oils). There were also world renowned experts in the fields of biomass, wind, biofuels, ocean energy and energy storage. The event was well attended by stakeholders from various fields.

The programme can be downloaded here and many presentations can be downloaded from the CPI website while those relating to the areas of study in Carbolea can be downloaded below:

Lord Oxburgh of Liverpool - "Some Thoughts on Biofuels..."

Daniel Hayes - "Biorefining, Work at Carbolea and the Biofine Process"

Dr. Dmitri Bulushev and Prof. Julian Ross - "Catalysis for Hydrogen and Transport Fuel Production from Biomass"

Dr. JJ Leahy and Dr. Witold Kwapinski - Thermochemical Conversion/Biomass Gasification

Prof. Austin Darragh - "Sir Charles Parsons and the Evolution of an Energy Led Economy"

Katerina Kryachko - "Bio-char and Plant Growth"



 

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