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Prof. Michael H. B. Hayes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. (Research) Michael H. B. Hayes MRIA

Department:

Chemical and Environmental Science

Address:

Main Bldg., Uni. of Limerick

Position:

Adjunct Professor

Qualifications:

MSc (Cornell), PhD (Ohio State)

Email:

Michael.H.Hayes@ul.ie

Phone (work):

(353) 61 20 2631

Phone (mobile):

(353) 87 233 6284

Fax:

(353) 61 20 2572

Skype:

Michael.H.Hayes


Prior to 2004 his major research interests (during his tenure in the School of Chemistry of the University of Birmingham, 1960-1998) were primarily focussed on the chemistry of soil organic matter, the interactions between anthropogenic organic chemicals and clays and humic substances, the interactions of water and of natural and synthetic polymers with clays and (hydr)oxides and the relevance of these to soil structure and to the properties of drilling muds. Since 2004 he has concentrated mainly on second generation biorefining, and on the chemistry and interactions of humic substances.

He is a Past President of the International Humic Substances Society, has held the Chairmanship of Commission II (Soil Chemistry) of the International Society of Soil Science (now IUSS), was elected to Membership of the Royal Irish Academy, and to Honorary memberships of the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), the American Society of Agronomy (ASA), and of the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). He is co-editor of 10 books dealing with Soil Colloids (including Humic Substances), and author of numerous articles in Scientific Journals, Chapters in Books, and Conference Proceedings.

References

A full list of publications, books, chapters, conference proceedings, and patents, can be downloaded from the website.

The publications below are those of most relevance to Carbolea.

S.A. Barker, P. Finch, M.H.B. Hayes, R.G. Simmonds, and M. Stacey. 1965. Isolation and preliminary characterisation of soil polysaccharides. Nature (London) 

S.A. Barker, M.H.B. Hayes, R.G. Simmonds, and M. Stacey, 1967. Studies on soil polysaccharides I. Carbohyd. Res.  5, 13-24.

P. Finch, M.H.B. Hayes, and M. Stacey, 1971. Biochemistry of soil polysaccharides. In A.D. McLaren and J.J. Skujins (eds), Soil Biochemistry  Vol. II, Marcel Dekker, New York,  pp. 257-319. 72

.M.V. Cheshire and M.H.B. Hayes, 1990. Compositions, origins, structures, and reactivities of soil polysaccharides. In M.F. DeBoodt, M.H.B. Hayes, and A. Herbillon (eds), 1990. Soil Colloids and Their Associations in Aggregates. Plenum, New York and London,  pp. 307-336.

Daniel J. Hayes, S.W. Fitzpatrick, M.H.B. Hayes, and J.R.H. Ross. 2005. The Biofine Process: Production of levulinic acid. furfural and formic acid from lignocellulosic feedstocks.  In B. Kamm, V.R. Gruber, and M. Kamm (eds) Biorefineries, Volume 1, Principles and Fundamentals.  Wiley-VCH. pp. 139-164.

Daniel J. Hayes, Michael H.B. Hayes, and Margaret M. Daly. 2006. Operação inovadora de biorrefino para produção de oleos             

S.A. Barker, P. Finch, M.H.B. Hayes, R.G. Simmonds, and M. Stacey. 1965. Isolation and preliminary characterisation of soil polysaccharides. Nature (London) 

S.A. Barker, M.H.B. Hayes, R.G. Simmonds, and M. Stacey, 1967. Studies on soil polysaccharides I. Carbohyd. Res.  5, 13-24.

P. Finch, M.H.B. Hayes, and M. Stacey, 1971. Biochemistry of soil polysaccharides. In A.D. McLaren and J.J. Skujins (eds), Soil Biochemistry  Vol. II, Marcel Dekker, New York,  pp. 257-319. 72

.M.V. Cheshire and M.H.B. Hayes, 1990. Compositions, origins, structures, and reactivities of soil polysaccharides. In M.F. DeBoodt, M.H.B. Hayes, and A. Herbillon (eds), 1990. Soil Colloids and Their Associations in Aggregates. Plenum, New York and London,  pp. 307-336.

Daniel J. Hayes, S.W. Fitzpatrick, M.H.B. Hayes, and J.R.H. Ross. 2005. The Biofine Process: Production of levulinic acid. furfural and formic acid from lignocellulosic feedstocks.  In B. Kamm, V.R. Gruber, and M. Kamm (eds) Biorefineries, Volume 1, Principles and Fundamentals.  Wiley-VCH. pp. 139-164.

Daniel J. Hayes, Michael H.B. Hayes, and Margaret M. Daly. 2006. Operação inovadora de biorrefino para produção de oleos     combustiveis e de quimico-platforma a partir de carboidratos de biomassa e de residuos diversos.  In F.H. Dubbern de Souza, E.B. Pott, O. Primavesi, A.C. de Campos Bernardi, and A. de Andrade Rodrigues (eds) Usos alternativos da palhada residual

Hayes, M. H. B. 2006. Biochar and biofuels for a brighter future (letter). Nature, 442, 144

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Hayes, D. J., Hayes, M. H. B. (2009). "The role that lignocellulosic feedstocks and various biorefining technologies can play in meeting Ireland’s biofuel targets."Biofpr, 3(5), 500-520

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Material/Downloads

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Summary Statistics

Carbolea
Total

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

Total
for Last
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Journal Papers

15

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2

2

Book Chapters

2

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Conference Papers

9

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0

0

0

0

0

Presentations

11

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0

0

0

0

0

Posters

2

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0

0

0

0

0

Videos

1

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Reports

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Untitled Document

Journal Articles

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Girisuta, B.K. DussanD. HavertyJ.J. LeahyM.H.B. Hayes (2013) A kinetic study of acid catalysed hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse to levulinic acid, Chemical Engineering Journal 217:61-70

Click for abstract
There is a significant research effort worldwide to identify attractive chemical conversion routes for lignocellulosic biomass to organic (bulk-)chemicals. This study has focussed on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for the production of levulinic acid (LA), a platform chemical used for the synthesis of a variety of materials for applications such as fuel additives and polymer and resin precursors. The objectives of this study were to develop a broadly applicable kinetic model for the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to LA and to determine the optimum reaction conditions for its production. Systematic kinetic experiments were carried out by varying the reaction temperature between 150 and 200 °C, and the sulphuric acid concentration between 0.11 and 0.55 M. The highest LA yield was obtained at 150 °C and 0.55 M H2SO4 at 63 mol%, which equates to the production of 194 kg of LA from 1 dry tonne of sugar cane bagasse. The kinetic model developed was in good agreement with the experimental data and also with the previous kinetic models developed for cellulose and sugar cane bagasse. Our kinetic model, though developed for the sugar cane bagasse, can be applied over a wide range of hydrolysis reaction conditions for lignocellulosic biomass. Based on the optimisation study carried out using our kinetic model, an empirical equation is proposed to predict the LA yield at a particular temperature and acid concentration.


F. MelliganM.H.B. HayesW. KwapinskiJ.J. Leahy (2013) A study of hydrogen pressure during hydropyrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus and online catalytic vapour upgrading with Ni on ZSM-5, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis

Click for abstract
Hydropyrolysis, coupled with a secondary catalytic reactor was used as a method of producing a bio-oil from Miscanthus x giganteus with low levels of oxygenated compounds and high yields of saturated hydrocarbons. This study used analytical Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy for the analysis of products from the pyrolysis of Miscanthus. Hydropyrolysis was carried out at 600 °C, and the pyrolysis vapours then passed through a secondary reactor, which contained a 10% Ni on ZSM-5 catalyst. The hydrogen pressure for the separate reactions ranged from atmospheric pressure up to 30 bar. The results indicate that both hydrogen pressure and the incorporation of the Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts play an important role in the production of saturated hydrocarbons through the hydrogenation, dehydration and decarboxylation of oxygenated compounds. Also, in the absence of the catalyst the concentration of ethanoic acid can be significantly reduced with the increase in hydrogen pressure, and completely eliminated at 20 bar.

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Haverty, D.Dussan, K.Piterina, A. V.Leahy J. J.Hayes, M. H. B. (2012) Autothermal, single-stage, performic acid pretreatment of Miscanthus x giganteus for the rapid fractionation of its biomass components into a lignin/hemicellulose-rich liquor and a cellulase-digestible pulp, Bioresource Technology 109:173-177

Click for abstract
A novel approach to the performic acid pulping of biomass enables effective delignification and fractionation in a time frame not achieved heretofore. An autothermal decomposition reaction was triggered when 100 mg/L Fe2(SO4)3 in 4.0 M NaOH was added to 5% or 7.5% H2O2 in aqueous formic acid containing chipped Miscanthus x giganteus. Peroxy-decomposition resulted in pressures of 19 and 35 bar in the 5% and 7.5% peroxide liquors and reduced the lignin content in the resulting pulps to <6% within 140 and 30 min, respectively. Solubilised lignin was available for recovery from the liquor by subsequent dilution with water. Hemicellulose removal to the liquor was 68% and 89% for the 5% and 7.5% peroxide solutions. Crystalline cellulose yields were >99% and >95% and the rate of glucose release from cellulase digestion of the pulps in 24 h was more than 20-fold that for the raw Miscanthus

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Melligan, F.Dussan, K., Auccaise, R., Novotny, E. H., Leahy, J. J.Hayes, M. H. B.Kwapinski, W. (2012) Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of MiscanthusBioresource Technology 108:258-263

Click for abstract
Platform chemicals such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are major products formed during the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in second generation biorefining processes. Solid hydrolysis residues (HR) can amount to 50 wt.% of the starting biomass materials. Pyrolysis of the HRs gives rise to biochar, bio-liquids, and gases. Time and temperature were variables during the pyrolysis of HRs in a fixed bed tubular reactor, and both parameters have major influences on the amounts and properties of the products. Biochar, with potential for carbon sequestration and soil conditioning, composed about half of the HR pyrolysis product. The amounts (11–20 wt.%) and compositions (up to 77% of phenols in organic fraction) of the bio-liquids formed suggest that these have little value as fuels, but could be sources of phenols, and the gas can have application as a fuel.


Girisuta B., Kalogiannis, K. G., Dussan, K.Leahy, J. J.Hayes, M. H. B., Stefanidis, S. (2012) An integrated process for the production of platform chemicals and diesel miscible fuels by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and downstream upgrading of the acid hydrolysis residues with thermal and catalytic pyrolysis, Bioresource Technology 126:92-100

Hayes, Thomas M., Michael H.B. Hayes, Roger S. Swift (2012) Detailed investigation of organic matter components in extracts and in drainage waters from a soil under long-term cultivation, Organic Geochemistry 52:13-21

Click for abstract
Aqueous solutions of increasing pH (7.0, 10.6 and 12.6) were used to extract exhaustively the organic matter (OM) from a pelo-stagnogley (heavy clay) soil in long term cultivation. OM yield was 1.7 times greater when the extracts were processed using an XAD-8 and XAD-4 resin-in-tandem procedure than that from the procedure of the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). The substantial difference can be attributed to the amount retained by the XAD-4 resin, which is lost in the IHSS process. Elemental, ?13C, ?15N, cation exchange capacity, neutral sugars, amino acids and solid state CPMAS 13C NMR analyses indicated significant, but rational similarities and differences between the various fractions isolated. There was strong NMR evidence for material derived from lignin in all the humic and fulvic acid isolates. The signals were attenuated in the more transformed/oxidized fractions isolated at lower pH. Novel humic acid fractions enriched in carbohydrate/peptide functionalities were isolated from the more hydrophobic extracts at pH 10.6 and 12.6. Isolates from XAD-4, of microbial origin, were enriched in neutral sugars but not in amino acids, and had minimal aromaticity. Components isolated from the cultivated soil were broadly similar to those from a comparable soil in long term grassland. The compositions of fractions isolated from the drainage water were similar to those extracted from the soil but had higher carboxyl content. The amount and composition of the various organic fractions in grassland and the continuously cropped soil are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to carbon sequestration by soil under similar management regimes.


Melligan, FergusKarla Dussan, Ruben Auccaise, Etelvino H Novotny, James J LeahyMichael H.B. HayesWitold Kwapinski (2012) Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of Miscanthus, Bioresource Technology 108:258-263

Click for abstract
Platform chemicals such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are major products formed during the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in second generation biorefining processes. Solid hydrolysis residues (HR) can amount to 50 wt.% of the starting biomass materials. Pyrolysis of the HRs gives rise to biochar, bio-liquids, and gases. Time and temperature were variables during the pyrolysis of HRs in a fixed bed tubular reactor, and both parameters have major influences on the amounts and properties of the products. Biochar, with potential for carbon sequestration and soil conditioning, composed about half of the HR pyrolysis product. The amounts (11-20 wt.%) and compositions (up to 77% of phenols in organic fraction) of the bio-liquids formed suggest that these have little value as fuels, but could be sources of phenols, and the gas can have application as a fuel.


Melligan, F.J.J. LeahyW. KwapinskiM.H.B. Hayes (2012) Hydro-pyrolysis of biomass and on-line catalytic vapour upgrading with Ni-ZSM and Ni-MCM-41, Energy and Fuels 26:6080-6090

Click for abstract
A catalyst reactor coupled with analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS) was used to carry out online analysis of the product vapors from the fast pyrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus, Scots pine, and mahogany. Pyrolysis was carried out in both an inert atmosphere of He gas and in a highly reducing atmosphere of H2. Significant changes in the vapor compositions were achieved with the use of H2 as the carrier gas. The most notable of these were the increases in the hydrocarbon compositions. The roles of ZSM-5, Ni/ZSM-5, MCM-41, and of Ni/MCM-41 catalysts on the compositions of the pyrolysis vapors were investigated. Lower amounts of the higher molecular weight phenolic compounds and larger amounts of the lighter phenols were observed in the presence of Ni supported on ZSM-5 and MCM-41. This effect was more evident for the 10% than for the 2.5% Ni loadings. Overall, the results both from the use of H2 as the carrier gas and from all the catalysts demonstrates significant improvements in the composition of the vapors. However, this resulted in the lowering of the quantities of condensable products.


Kolodynska, D., Wnetrzak, R.Leahy, JJHayes, MHBKwapinski, W, Hubicki, Z. (2012) Kinetic and adsorptive characterization of biochar in metal ions removal, Chemical Engineering Journal 197:295-305

Click for abstract
Kinetic and adsorption studies on the removal of metal ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in the biochar (BC) samples have been carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters have been investigated using the batch adsorption technique at different temperature. The effectiveness of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions removal increases with the increasing initial concentration of biochar and metal ion, pH as well as phase contact time. The maximum adsorption was found in the pH range 5.0–6.0. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Adsorption studies were also performed at different temperatures and modelled with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms.


Kwapinski, W.Byrne, C. M. P.Kryachko, E., Wolfram, P., Adley, C., Novotny, E., Hayes, M. H. B. (2010) Biochar from Biomass and Waste, Waste and Biomass Valorization 1(2):177-189

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There is an increasing realisation that biomass and organic wastes are valuable feedstocks for second generation biorefining processes that give rise to platform chemicals to substitute for dwindling petrochemical resources, and for pyrolysis processes that produce syngas, bio-oil, and biochar from biomass, organic wastes, and the biorefining residuals of the future. The experimental work described has focused on physical properties and compositions of biochars produced from miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), willow (Salix spp) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) at 500°C and at 400, 500, and 600°C in the case of the miscanthus. Although the morphologies of the cell structures were maintained in the pyrolysis, the surface area of the miscanthus biochar was greatly increased by heating at 600°C for 60 min. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed the disappearance of evidence for the carbohydrate and lignin plant components as the pyrolysis temperature was raised, and the compositions of miscanthus biochars after heating for 10 and for 60 min at 600°C were very similar and composed of fused aromatic structures and with no traces of the aliphatic components in the starting materials. In greenhouse and growth chamber experiments the growth of maize (Zea mays L) seedlings was found to be inhibited by soil amendments with biochar from miscanthus formed at 400°C for 10 min, but stimulated by miscanthus char formed at 600°C for 60 min. In the course of discussion the relevance of the results obtained is related to the roles that soil amendments with biochar can have on soil fertility, carbon sequestration, on the emissions of greenhouse gases from soil, on fertilizer requirements, and on waste management. It is clear that biochar soil amendments can have definite agronomic and environmental benefits, but it will be essential to have clear guidelines for biochar production from various feedstocks and under varying pyrolysis parameters. It will be equally important to have a classification system for biochars that clearly indicate the product compositions that will meet acceptable standards. A case can be made for sets of standard biochars from different substrates that meet the required criteria.


Byrne, C. M. P.Hayes, M.H.B.,  Kumar, R., Novotny, E.H., Lanigan, G., Richards, K.G., Fay, D., Simpson, A.J. (2010) Compositional changes in the hydrophobic acids fraction of drainage water from different land management practices, Water Research 44(15):4379-4390

Click for abstract
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can play a key role in many environmental processes, including carbon cycling, nutrient transport and the fates of contaminants and of agrochemicals. Hydrophobic acids (Ho), the major components of the DOM, were recovered from the drainage waters from well-drained (WDS) and poorly-drained (PDS) Irish grassland soils in lysimeters, amended with N fertiliser (F) and with bovine urine (U) and were studied using 1D and 2D solution-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Diffusion Edited (DE) (1)H NMR spectra indicated that the Ho consisted largely of larger molecules, or of molecules that formed rigid aggregates, and the 1D and the 2D (Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Coherence - HMQC, the Total Correlation Spectroscopy - TOCSY, and the Nuclear Overhauser Effect - NOESY) spectra indicated that the samples were composed of lignin residues, carbohydrates, protein/peptides, and aliphatic components derived from plant waxes/cuticular materials and from microbial lipids. The F amendments increased the concentrations of Ho in the waters by 1.5 and 2.5 times those in the controls in the cases of WDS and PDS, respectively. The lignin-derived components were increased by 50% and 300% in the cases of the Ho from the WDS and PDS, respectively. Applications of F + U decreased the losses of Ho, (compared to the F amendments alone) and very significantly decreased those of the lignin-derived materials, indicating that enhanced microbial activity from U gave rise to enhanced metabolism of the Ho components, and especially of lignin. In contrast the less biodegradable aliphatic components containing cuticular materials increased as the result of applications of F + U. This study helps our understanding of how management practices influence the movement of C between terrestrial and aquatic environments.

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Hayes, D. J.Hayes, M. H. B. (2009) The role that lignocellulosic feedstocks and various biorefining technologies can play in meeting Ireland’s biofuel targets, Biofpr 3(5):500-520

Click for abstract
This paper considers the contribution that biorefineries, through the production of second-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks, can make in the Republic of Ireland to the mandated 10% transport biofuel quotient for 2020. An emphasis is placed on the avoidance of land-use conflict issues and, hence, on the prioritization of waste/residue utilization before dedicated energy crops are grown. It is concluded that up to 5.3% of the 2010 demand for biofuels can be met from the utilization of feasible quantities of wastes and residues in near-term biorefining technologies and that 5% of the 2020 petrol and diesel demand can be met via processing a similar quantity of waste in advanced biorefining processes based on consolidated bioprocessing micro-organisms and syngas-reforming catalysts. The remaining biofuel requirements for 2020 can be met by processing energy crops. Between 1.4% and 15.9% of the agricultural area of Ireland is required for the production of these crops, depending on the particular feedstock and technology employed. The production of a high-yielding Miscanthus crop that is harvested directly after senescence will place the minimum requirement on Irish land.

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Novotny, E. H.,  deAzevedo, E. R., Bonagamba, T. J., Cunha, T. J. F., Madari, B. E.,  Benites, V. M., Hayes, M. H. B. (2007) Studies of the compositions of humic acids from Amazonian Dark Earth soils, Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(2):400-405

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The compositions of humic acids (HAs) isolated from cultivated and forested “Terra Preta de Índio” or Amazonian Dark Earth soils (anthropogenic soils) were compared with those from adjacent non-anthropogenic soils (control soils) using elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, and a variety of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The thermogravimetric index, which indicates the molecular thermal resistance, was greater for the anthropogenic soils than for the control soils suggesting polycyclic aromatic components in the former. The cultivated anthropogenic soils were more enriched in C and depleted in H than the anthropogenic soils under forest, as the result of the selective degradation of aliphatic structures and the possible enrichment of H-deficient condensed aromatic structures. The combination of variable amplitude cross-polarization (VACP) and chemical shift anisotropy with total suppression of spinning sidebands experiments with composite ? pulses could be used to quantify the aromaticity of the HAs from the anthropogenic soils. From principal component analysis, using the VACP spectra, it was possible to separate the different constituents of the HAs, such as the carboxylated aromatic structures, from the anthropogenic soils and plant derived compounds. The data show that the HAs from anthropogenic soils have high contents of aryl and ionisable oxygenated functional groups, and the major functionalities from adjacent control soils are oxygenated functional groups from labile structures (carbohydrates, peptides, and with evidence for lignin structures). The anthropogenic soils HAs can be considered to be more recalcitrant, and with more stable reactive functional groups which may, in part, explain their more sustainable fertility due to the organic matter contribution to the soil cation exchange capacity.

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Hayes, M. H. B. (2006) Biochar and biofuels for a brighter future, Nature 443:144
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Novotny, E. H., Hayes, M. H. B., deAzevedo, E. R., Bonagamba, T. J. (2006) Characterisation of black carbon-rich samples by 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, Naturwissenschaften 93(9):447-450

Click for abstract
There are difficulties in quantifying and characterising the organic matter (OM) in soils that contain significant amounts of partially oxidised char or charcoal materials. The anthropogenic black carbon (BC), such as that found in the Terra Preta de Índio soils of the Amazon region, is a good example of the OM that is difficult to analyse in such soils. 13C direct polarisation/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) at high MAS frequency, 1H-13C cross polarisation (CP)/MAS with total suppression of spinning sidebands (TOSS), and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filter nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have been applied successfully for quantifying the different components of OM. However, because pyrogenic materials present strong local magnetic susceptibility heterogeneities, the use of CSA-filter and TOSS make the pulse sequences very sensitive to imperfections in the ? pulses. In this study, the DP/MAS pulse sequence was replaced by a CP with a radio frequency ramp—variable amplitude CP (VACP)—VACP/MAS pulse sequence, and composite ? pulses were used in the CSA-filter and TOSS pulse sequences. In that way, the component functionalities in a humic acid from a BC soil were successfully determined. The spectrometer time needed was greatly decreased by employing this VACP/MAS technique. This development provides an accurate method for characterising BC-rich samples from different origins.

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Book Chapters

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Hayes, D. J.Hayes, M. H. B., Daly, M. M. (2006) Operação inovadora de biorrefino para produção de oleos combustiveis e de quimico-platforma a partir de carboidratos de biomassa e de residuos diversos,  Usos alternativos da palhada residual da produção de sementes para pastagens, F. H. D. de Souza, E. B. Pott, O. Primavesi, A. C. C. Bernardi, EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil:161-191

Hayes, D. J., Fitzpatrick, S. W., Hayes, M. H. B.Ross, J. R. H. (2005) The Biofine Process: Production of levulinic acid, furfural and formic acid from lignocellulosic feedstocks, Biorefineries: Industrial Processes and Products, B. Kamm, P. R. Gruber , M. Kamm, Wiley, Weinheim, Germany 1:139-164
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Conference Proceedings

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Cheng, R.R. , R. MylotteR. McInerney, Y.M. Tzou, M.H.B. Hayes (2012) A comparison of the compositional differences between humic fractions isolated by the IHSS and exhaustive extraction procedures, Functions of Natural Organic Matter in Changing Environment. Proc. 16th IHSS International Conference (Hangzhou), J. Xu, J. Wu, Y. He:78-80

Hayes, M.H.B. (2012) Relationships between biochar and soil humic substances, Functions of Natural Organic Matter in Changing Environment. Proc. 16th IHSS International Conference (Hangzhou), J. Xu, J. Wu, Y. He:540-542

Hayes, M.H.B., Swift, R. S. (2012) Lumping or splitting: Holistic or fractionation approaches in studies of humic substances, Functions of Natural Organic Matter in Changing Environment. Proc. 16th IHSS International Conference (Hangzhou), J. Xu, J. Wu, Y. He:31-33

Melligan F.Leahy J. J.Hayes M.H.B.Kwapinski W. (2012) Hydro-pyrolysis of biomass and on-line catalytic vapour upgrading with Ni-ZSM-5 and Ni-MCM-41, COST UBIOCHEM, 3rd Workshop, Thessaloniki Greece, 1-3 November:17

Mylotte, R.C.M.P. Byrne, R.R. Cheng, C. Dalton, M.H.B. Hayes. (2012) Studies of humic substances from sediments in Galway Bay, Ireland, Functions of Natural Organic Matter in Changing Environment. Proc. 16th IHSS International Conference (Hangzhou):72-74

Piterina, A.V.Hayes, M.H.B. (2012) Classification of biochars by their mutagenicity using the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay, Prooeedgs 4th International Biochar Conference (Beijing, China, Sept 17-21), G. Li:38-41

Piterina, A.V.Hayes, M. H. B. (2012) Influence of the addition of herbaceous biochar on the metabolic profiles of the maize rhizosphere microbial community. The BIOLOGECO, GP andGN plates technique, Prooeedgs 4th International Biochar Conference (Beijing, China, Sept 17-21), G. Li:74-77

Piterina, A.V.M.H.B. Hayes (2012) Influence of herbaceous biochar on root architecture, infection patterns and diversityof AMF symbionts during establishment stage (14 days) of maize growth, Prooeedgs 4th International Biochar Conference (Beijing, China, Sept 17-21), G. Li:143-146

Piterina AV, Chipman, K, Leahy, JJPembroke JTM.H.B. Hayes (2012) Method development and validation for in-vitro screening of mutagenic activity of biochars obtained from pyrolysis biorefinery processes in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains, Society for General Microbiology Spring Conference, Dublin, March 2012 :77


Presentations

Untitled Document

Hayes, M.H.B. (2012) Production of platform chemicals in the DIBANET Project using novel pre-treatment methods and acid hydrolysis, Congress of Bioenergy, Xi’an, China, April 27th

Hayes, M.H.B. (2012) Relationships between biochar and soil humic substances, 16th IHSS International Conference, Hangzhou, China, Sept 10-14th

Hayes, M.H.B. (2012) Platform chemicals and fuel additives from lignocellulosic biomass, CREES International Symposium, Dublin City University, June 4-6

M.H.B. HayesC.M.P. Byrne (2012) Characterization of Biochar from Pyrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus, Its Effect on Plant Growth and Its Potential for Carbon Sequestration, Eurosoil Conference, Bari, Italy, July 2-6

Melligan F.Leahy J.J.Hayes M.H.B.Kwapinski W. (2012) Py–GC/MS of Miscanthus with Ni-ZSM-5 and Ni-MCM-41 under a hydrogen atmosphere, 19th International Symposium on Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Linz, Austria, 21-25 May

Hayes, M. H. B. (2011) Second Generation Biorefining, CHEMRAWN XIX, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Sept. 28 2011
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Swift, R., Hayes, M. H. B. (2011) Biochar Produced by Pyrolysis and its Effects on Plant Growth and Carbon Sequestration, CHEMRAWN XIX, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Sept. 28 2011
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Hayes, M. H. B. (2011) Biochar Characterization, International Biochar Initiative Conference, Newcastle, England, Sept 8-11, 2008

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"Biochar Characterization" - A keynote presentation by Prof. Michael Hayes at the 2008 Conference for the International Biochar Initiative (Sept 8-11, 2008). This presentation covers the advanced biochar and terra preta characterisation techniques that have been developed at Carbolea.



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Byrne, C. M. P. (2010) Biochar from Biorefinery Residuals, 3rd International Biochar Conference: IBI, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Sep. 12 – 15, 2010
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Hayes, M. H. B. (2009) DIBANET - The Production of Sustainable Diesel Miscible Biofuels from the Residues and Wastes of Europe and Latin America, Tailor Made Fuels from Biomass, University of Aachen, Germany, June 24th 2009
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Hayes, M. H. B. (2009) Second Generation Biorefining for Sustainable Indigenous Industries for Ireland, Feasta "New Emergency Conference", Dublin, Ireland, June 11th 2009
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Posters

Untitled Document

Hayes, D. J. M.Leahy, J. J.Hayes, M. H. B. (2012) Analysis of European Biomass Feedstocks and Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Rapid Analytical Tool, DIBANET Networking Conference, Thessaloniki, Greece, Oct 31st
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Byrne, C. M. P.Hayes, M. H. B., Simpson, A. J. (2010) Changes in dissolved organic matter losses from soils under different management, 15th Meeting of the International Humic Substances Society “Humic Substances and the Maintenance of Ecosystem Services”, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain 27th
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Videos

Untitled Document

Hayes, M. H. B. (2009) Second Generation Biorefining for Sustainable Indigenous Industries for Ireland, Feasta "New Emergency Conference", Dublin, Ireland

Click for abstract
In this presentation, biorefining processes are outlined, with discussion of acid versus enzymatic hydrolysis for lignocellulose biorefinery feedstocks. The products of high temperature/high pressure biorefining processes yielding furfural, levulinic acid, formic acid, and biorefinery residuals are illustrated, and the extents to which the chemical products can provide platform chemicals and fuel additives are discussed. Emphasis is given to pyrolysis products (gases, bio-oil and biochar) of the residuals, and of the potential to upgrade the bio-oil to fuel additive products, and to the uses of the biochar in soil amendment processes. The presentation can be downloaded here and a video of it can be watched here or below.

   



Research Areas

Untitled Document

Analysis of Feedstocks and Process Outputs

There are excellent facilities at the University of Limerick that facilitate our analytical work. Analytical protocols being conducted at Carbolea include: lignocellulosic components of potential biorefining materials; soil organic matter composition; biochar properties; and the products of conversion and catalytic processes.

 

 


Biochar

Carbolea researchers recognise the potential of bioochar as both a plant growth promoter and as a means of sequestering atmospheric carbon. How the biochar functions in these roles will depend on the production mechanisms employed and the particular ultrastructure that results. These are some of the biochar topics considered.

 

 


Biorefining and Second Generation Biofuels

Carbolea researchers have been active for some time in the field of biomass conversion to high-value end products and fuels (biorefining). Work here covers the evaluation and development of biorefining feedstocks and technologies

 

 


Catalysis and Downstream Processing

Carbolea Researchers are looking at the most effective catalysts to upgrade bio-oils and to convert the products from biorefining technologies to higher value chemicals and fuels

 

 


Effective Utilisation of Wastes

We recognise that waste materials can have real value, particularly in biorefining and pyrolysis schemes. Carbolea researchers are looking to analyse wastes and evaluate their value in such processes and also develop more effective methods for their utilisation.

 

 


Miscanthus

Miscanthus is a herbaceous energy crop that can be highly productive in Ireland. It has been studied and processed in many of the projects undertaken at Carbolea.

 

 


Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Near infrared spectroscopy is an important part of our analytical regime. It offers the potential for the rapid analysis of biomass feedstocks and the products of biomass conversion without the need for timely and costly wet chemical analytical techniques.

 

 



Projects

Current Projects

Untitled Document

DIBANET

Carbolea is co-ordinating a large FP7 project that involves close collaboration between 13 partners, 7 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The focus of this project is on the sustainable production of diesel miscible biofuels from the residues and wastes of both regions.

 

 


EPA Funded - Analysis of Irish Waste Materials

The EPA STRIVE programme has funded a project that will allow Carbolea researchers to analyse, in detail, the various waste materials that arise in Ireland. The laboratory analysis will be geared towards looking for components relevant to hydrolysis or thermochemical biorefining technologies. Near Infrared Spectroscopy will also be integrated into the analytical protocol and its utility in the rapid analysis of waste will be assessed. The primary compositional data will inform a comparison between utilising these waste materials in biorefineries compare with more traditional means of waste treatment.

 

 


Evaluate Agricultural Feedstocks and Biorefining Technologies

In association with the Department of Agriculture, UL researchers are undertaking a desk-based evaluation of biorefining technologies and feedstocks for Ireland with a focus on the products of the agricultural sector. This work also involves a signifcant amount of lab-work characterising these feedstocks.

 

 


Char Production, Characterisation and Optimisation

A major project is underway, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, involving the production of biochar and the analysis of its properties and how these influence its utility as a plant growth promoter, pollution remediant, and means for sequestering atmospheric carbon.

 

 


Completed Projects

Untitled Document

Peat Analysis for Biorefining Processes

Various types of peats have been collected and analysed via wet chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The resulting compositional data have enabled predictions to be made concerning the value of these peats in various biorefining technologies.

 

 


News Articles

Untitled Document

01 Dec 2012

Petrobras Joins DIBANET as a Project Partner

We are pleased to announce that Petrobras has joined the DIBANET consortium, which is headed by Carbolea.

Petrobras, a major Brazilian energy corporation that produces enough oil to meet the needs of Brazil, has shown increasing interest in recent years in the production of sustainable biofuels and chemicals. The Company, which has been collaborating with Prof. Victor Teixeira da Silva, a researcher at DIBANET partner UFRJ, for some time, became interested in the DIBANET project during the Summer School and Networking Event, organised by Prof. Teixeira for the project, in Rio de Janeiro in 2010.

DIBANET project leader Prof. Michael Hayes, remarked that: “The addition of Petrobras to the DIBANET consortium is a significant event and a great reflection of the progress that has been achieved in the project. Petrobras will be of immense help in allowing us to determine the most appropriate ways to advance towards the commercialisation of the advanced processes that we have developed over the past three years”.


31 Oct 2012

DIBANET Networking Day Held in Thessaloniki, Greece

The DIBANET research consortium presented the "Diesel miscible fuels from wastes, residues and non-food crops of Latin America & Europe" Networking event today at CERTH, in Thessaloniki, Greece.

The aim of the event was to bring together key players in scientific communities and industry to discuss how Europe and Latin America can work together to produce diesel fuels sustainably and cheaply. The DIBANET processes and the key results of the project were presented.

The presentations and posters are available in the "Agenda" and "Poster" sections of the DIBANET website.


29 Oct 2012

Final DIBANET Project Meeting Held in Thessaloniki, Greece

The final meeting of the DIBANET project was held between 29-31 October at the headquarters of project partner CERTH in Thessaloniki, Greece.

This meeting allowed for partners to put forward the excellent results that have been achieved in the project and to also discuss the final area remaining; the financial and technical modelling of the DIBANET process chain.


05 Jul 2012

Paper Published on the Near Infrared Analysis of Miscanthus

A paper has been published containing the development of near infrared spectroscopy models for the quantitative prediction of the lignocellulosic constituents of wet Miscanthus samples. This work was carried out under a Department of Agriculture funded project and the DIBANET project. The paper can be accessed at ScienceDirect or downloaded directly from Carbolea (the supplemental material can be accessed here).

Abstract: Miscanthus samples were scanned over the visible and near infrared wavelengths at several stages of processing (wet-chopped, air-dried, dried and ground, and dried and sieved). Models were developed to predict lignocellulosic and elemental constituents based on these spectra. The dry and sieved scans gave the most accurate models; however the wet-chopped models for glucose, xylose, and Klason lignin provided excellent accuracies with root mean square error of predictions of 1.27%, 0.54%, and 0.93%, respectively. These models can be suitable for most applications. The wet models for arabinose, Klason lignin, acid soluble lignin, ash, extractives, rhamnose, acid insoluble residue, and nitrogen tended to have lower R2 values (0.80+) for the validation sets and the wet models for galactose, mannose, and acid insoluble ash were less accurate, only having value for rough sample screening. This research shows the potential for online analysis at biorefineries for the major lignocellulosic constituents of interest.


25 Jun 2012

DIBANET Project Meeting Held at Carbolea

A review meeting for the EU FP7 project DIBANET was held at Carbolea. This was attended by numerous project partners from Europe and Latin America. The meeting provided a valuable opportunity to present the recent progress made and to discuss ways in which this can be moved forward in a commercial context. The meeting also involved an excursion to the operational DIBANET pilot reactor system. Some photos are included below.


23 May 2012

Paper Published on Metal Ions Adsorption on Biochar

A paper has been published containing work conducted at the University of Limerick and at the Maria Cure-Sklodowska University in Lublin.

Abstract: Kinetic and adsorption studies on the removal of metal ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in the biochar (BC) samples have been carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters have been investigated using the batch adsorption technique at room temperature. The effectiveness of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions removal increases with the increasing initial concentration of biochar and metal ion, pH as well as phase contact time. The maximum adsorption was found in the pH range 5.0-6.0. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Adsorption studies were also performed at different temperatures and modelled with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms.

Kolodynska D., Wnetrzak R., , Leahy J.J., Hayes, M. H. B., Kwapinski, W., Hubicki Z. Adsorptive characterisation of biochar in heavy metal ions removal. Chemical Engineering Journal 2012 - in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.025


01 Mar 2012

Paper Published on Pyrolysis of Residues from the DIBANET Process

A paper has been published containing work by Carbolea members on the pyrolysis of the acid hydrolysis residues that are produced as a byproduct of the DIBANET process. The paper is entitled "Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of Miscanthus" and can be downloaded from ScienceDirect.

Abstract: Platform chemicals such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are major products formed during the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in second generation biorefining processes. Solid hydrolysis residues (HR) can amount to 50 wt.% of the starting biomass materials. Pyrolysis of the HRs gives rise to biochar, bio-liquids, and gases. Time and temperature were variables during the pyrolysis of HRs in a fixed bed tubular reactor, and both parameters have major influences on the amounts and properties of the products. Biochar, with potential for carbon sequestration and soil conditioning, composed about half of the HR pyrolysis product. The amounts (11–20 wt.%) and compositions (up to 77% of phenols in organic fraction) of the bio-liquids formed suggest that these have little value as fuels, but could be sources of phenols, and the gas can have application as a fuel.

Melligan, F., Dussan, K., Auccaise, R., Novotny, E. H., Leahy, J. J., Hayes, M. H. B., Kwapinski, W. (2012) Characterisation of the products from pyrolysis of residues after acid hydrolysis of Miscanthus, Bioresource Technology, 108, 258-263


15 Jan 2012

Daniel Hayes and Corinna Byrne Graduate with PhDs

Daniel Hayes and Corinna Byrne today attended a graduation ceremeny and received their PhDs. Dan was supervised by Dr J. J. Leahy and his thesis was entitled "Analysis of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks for Biorefineries with a Focus on The Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Primary Analytical Tool". Corinna was supervised by Prof. Michael Hayes and her thesis was entitled "Studies of the Organic Matter Components in Irish Grassland Soils and Their Drainage Waters".

Daniel Hayes's PhD Viva presentation can be downloaded here, and the Thesis can also be downloaded from Carbolea: Volume 1, Volume 2.


11 Jan 2012

Paper on DIBANET Pretreatment Process Published Online

A new paper, written by several members of the Carbolea DIBANET team, was published online today. It covers the development of a new pretreatment process for biomass. The paper is entitled "Autothermal, single-stage, performic acid pretreatment of Miscanthus x giganteus for the rapid fractionation of its biomass components into a lignin/hemicellulose-rich liquor and a cellulase-digestible pulp" and can be obtained, by those with ScienceDirect subscriptions here or can be downloaded directly from Carbolea.

This work describes a novel pretreatment process suitable for Second Generation Biorefining, which is able to separate the main substrates in biomass through a fast and efficient oxidative reaction. A detailed compositional characterization of the products of the process is included, as well as the evaluation of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction separated from Miscanthus during the experiments. The paper shows how cellulose in biomass can be separated as a solid product from the lignin and hemicellulose components in solution in a hydrogen peroxide and formic acid system. The lignin is recovered as a precipitate when the solution extract is diluted with water.

Abstract: A novel approach to the performic acid pulping of biomass enables effective delignification and fractionation in a time frame not achieved heretofore. An autothermal decomposition reaction was triggered when 100 mg/L Fe2(SO4)3 in 4.0 M NaOH was added to 5% or 7.5% H2O2 in aqueous formic acid containing chipped Miscanthus x giganteus. Peroxy-decomposition resulted in pressures of 19 and 35 bar in the 5% and 7.5% peroxide liquors and reduced the lignin content in the resulting pulps to <6% within 140 and 30 min, respectively. Solubilised lignin was available for recovery from the liquor by subsequent dilution with water. Hemicellulose removal to the liquor was 68% and 89% for the 5% and 7.5% peroxide solutions. Crystalline cellulose yields were >99% and >95% and the rate of glucose release from cellulase digestion of the pulps in 24 h was more than 20-fold that for the raw Miscanthus.

Haverty, D., Dussan, K., Piterina, A. V., Leahy J. J., Hayes, M. H. B. (2012) Autothermal, single-stage, performic acid pretreatment of Miscanthus x giganteus for the rapid fractionation of its biomass components into a lignin/hemicellulose-rich liquor and a cellulase-digestible pulp, Bioresource Technology (109), 173-177


09 Jan 2012

DIBANET Meeting Takes Places in Santiago, Chile

A DIBANET project review meeting took place at the headquarters of project partner Fundacion Chile, in Santiago, Chile, between Jan 9-11. Extensive discussions took place regarding the significant work achieved so far in the project and how future work should proceed.


01 Jan 2012

Rosaleen Undertakes Research at Monash University, Melbourne

Rosaleen Mylottte has availed of an EU Marie Curie Award to research with Professor Tony Patti in the Chemistry Department of Monash University, Melbourne. This will be a 9 month scholarship. Rosaleen is conducting her reseach in collaboration with Prof. Antonio Patti and Prof. Alan Chaffe while in Monash University. She will play an active role as a member of Prof. Patti’s reseach group in the School of Green Chemistry. At Monash University she will conduct solid state NMR spectroscopy, Py-GCMS, δ 13C, XRF, TGA and elemental analysis on extracted humic material. This research will add to and enhance her PhD research on humic substances in estuarine sediments.


28 Sep 2011

Michael Hayes Presents at IUPAC XIX Conference in Kuala Lumpur

Michael Hayes today gave a presentation at CHEMRAWN XIX in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. His talk covered many of the areas of study at Carbolea, including the DIBANET project and biochar. The presentation can be downloaded here. Another presentation was given by Prof. Roger Swift, of the University of Queensland, in conjunction with Prof. Hayes on Sep 29th. That presentation can be downloaded here.


29 Jun 2011

DIBANET Meeting Takes Places in Thessaloniki, Greece

DIBANET held its second project review meeting in Thessaloniki on 29 June and 1 July. The meeting included a general review of work-to-date and advance on the different components of the project. The meeting was hosted by the Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI). In addition, partner leaders and technical presentations were attended by Hube Stassen, reviewer on behalf of FP7 direction and European expert on the thermochemical conversion of biomass.
Some of the most relevant progress is summarized as follow:

- A potential fast-pretreatment technology has been developed at the University of Limerick to fractionate biomass in an efficient and fast stage before the acid hydrolysis for the production of levulinic acid.

- Advances were shown at the University of Limerick regarding to the construction of a pilot-scale continuous unit that will evaluate optimal operational conditions both in the pretreatment and hydrolysis stage for the levulinic acid production.

- New materials and catalyst has been produced at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and University of Buenos Aires that will be used in different processes such as ethyl levulinate production, biomass processing and bio-oil esterification.

- Evaluation of the use of Acid-Hydrolysis Residue for production of both bio-oil and bio-char were discussed by partners at Aston University and CPERI, as well as the quality of the products obtained regarding to bio-oil upgrading with acid-catalysts and soil amendment, respectively.

In consideration of new promising results and drawbacks during the last year, partners remarked on the importance of the partnership and feedback between the different parts of the general process that is being considered in DIBANET in order to address towards an efficient and commercial process evaluated be means of LCA analysis and economic studies.


12 May 2011

DIBANET Catalyst Workshop Takes Place at Carbolea

Members of the DIBANET research project team from Europe and Latin America recently came together for a two day research workshop hosted by Carbolea. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss progress in the development of the DIBANET process, with a heavy emphasis on the role of catalysis in the production of diesel miscible biofuels from European and Latin American feedstocks.

Acid hydrolysis of biomass feedstocks for the production of levulinic acid is being carried out in the DIBANET reactor system at the University of Limerick. Promising results from the development of a pre-treatment to reduce the recalcitrance of biomass, resulting in an improvement in the hydrolysis yields were discussed. A pre-treatment system utilising catalysts developed by partner UBA was also examined.

Latin American partner UFRJ are undertaking catalytic esterification reactions of levulinc acid and ethanol to produce ethyl levulinate and upgrading of bio-oil using catalysts developed in-house and by UBA.

The residual materials from the hyrdrolysis process are being examined by UK partner Aston University for their potential as a feedstock for pyrolysis to produce bio-oil. CERTH from Greece are investigating the role that catalysts can play in improving the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of the acid hydrolysis residues.


01 Feb 2011

Paper Published on Pressurised Pyrolysis of Miscanthus

A paper, entitled "Pressurised pyrolysis of Miscanthus using a frixed bed reactor" has been published.It can be downloaded from ScienceDirect.

Abstract: Miscanthus x giganteus was pyrolysed, in a fixed bed reactor in a constant flow of dinitrogen gas, at a rate of 13 °C/min from ambient to 550 °C, then held for 25 min at this temperature. The pressures employed ranged from atmospheric to 26 bar. The major compounds identified in the bio-oil were water, phenol, and phenol derivatives. The water contents impact on the usefulness of the bio-oil as a fuel. However, the phenols could provide useful platform chemicals and products.

Melligan, F., Auccaise, R., Novotny, E. H., Leahy, J. J., Hayes, M. H. B., Kwapinski, W. (2011) Pressurised pyrolysis of Miscanthus using a frixed bed reactor, Bioresource Technology, 102, 3466-3470


13 Dec 2010

DIBANET Summer School Takes Place

The DIBANET Summer School, aimed at providing in-depth information on technologies for the sustainable production of second generation diesel fuels, took place recently at the Federal University of Rio de Janeirofrom December 13th to 16th 2010. The School was designed for postgraduate students (Masters and PhD) in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, typically in their first or second years of research, who wanted to engage in the examination of technologies for the sustainable production of second generation diesel fuels, chemicals and biochars from the wastes, residues and non-food crops of Latin America and Europe. 

The Summer School took place over four days. Day one overlapped with the DIBANET Networking Day and gave students a valuable opportunity to engage with leading players in the scientific and industrial communities. The remainder of the summer school examined hydrolysis and thermal processing of biomass for second generation biofuel production. This included a series of lectures on carbohydrates chemistry, biomass characterization, hydrolysis, and products analysis as well as on pyrolysis, characterisation of pyrolysis products, catalytic pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of products. The course offered a unique opportunity for interaction with fellow students and leading international scientific and industrial experts from Europe and Latin America. It was not "all work and no play" either, as there was also plenty of social interaction. 

Carbolea members Daniel Hayes, Michael Hayes, and Buana Girisuta all gave presentations at the Summer school. All of the presentations made can be access via the e-learning tool of the DIBANET website.


13 Dec 2010

DIBANET Networking Day Held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The DIBANET research consortium presented "Diesel fuels from wastes, residues and non-food crops of Latin America & Europe" at the DIBANET Networking Day that was held on December 13th 2010 at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Networking day brought together key players in scientific communities and industry to discuss how Europe and Latin America can work together to produce diesel fuels sustainably and cheaply.

Presentations were made and discussions took place on new methods for the sustainable production of diesel fuels from wastes and residues. Speakers included DIBANET partners from Europe and Latin America. 

Topics covered included:

- Latin American and European feedstocks for diesel fuel production

- Technologies for sustainable diesel fuel production and their products

- Catalysis in diesel fuel production.

- Newly developed analytical techniques for online feedstock characterisation

An overview of the programme is available on the DIBANET website where the presentations from project partners can be downloaded.

The presentations given by Carbolea members can be downloaded below:

"Introduction to the Biorefinery Concept" - Daniel Hayes

"Introduction to the DIBANET Concept" - Michael Hayes

"European Feedstocks" - Daniel Hayes

Chet Culver, Governor of Iowa and representative of the Governors Biofuel Coalition in the United States, presented at the DIBANET Networking Day, where he outlined Iowa’s activities in the renewable energy sector. Petrobras, the fourth largest energy company in the world, also attended and were keen to learn about technologies being developed by DIBANET. 

The Networking day was combined with a Poster session to present the current DIBANET achievements. You can find photos from the event and from the poster session on the DIBANET website.


11 Dec 2010

DIBANET Project Meeting at Rio de Janeiro

Today a project review meeting for the DIBANET project was held at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. This allowed for discussion to take place regarding the significant progress achieved in the project and our future plans.


01 Dec 2010

Research by Carbolea Members Published by the EPA

Carbolea members conducted a research project entitled ‘Acquisition of essential data for assessment for carbon sequestration by soils’. The major aim of this project was to provide seminal information about the nature and associations of the organic matter in Irish soils and in drainage waters with a view to establishing the extent to which Irish soils could act as sinks for carbon.
The report can be accessed on the EPA website.

Hayes, M.H.B., Byrne, C.M.P., Song, G., Ferriera, J., Novotny, E.H. Acquisition of essential data for assessment for carbon sequestration by soils. STRIVE EPA report 2010.


27 Sep 2010

Daniel Hayes Presents at EPA Waste to Resource Conference

Carbolea member Daniel Hayes today gave a presentation on the subject of biochar to the EPA Waste to Resource Conference in Dublin. That presentation can be downloaded here.


12 Sep 2010

Carbolea Members Present at International Biochar Conference

Corinna Byrne and Prof. Michael Hayes attended the 3rd International Biochar Conference: IBI 2010, in Rio de Janeiro, September 12 – 15, 2010. Corinna gave a presentation on biochar from biorefinery residuals. The residuals from the DIBANET biorefinery process are subjected to pyrolytic processing at different reactor temperatures and at different hot vapour and solids residence times in order to determine the optimum processing conditions for the production of the biochar, bio-oil, and syngas pyrolysis products. A detailed characterization of the biochars was carried out and the efficacies of the biochars were tested for the promotion of plant growth and for uses as soil amenders. Biochars from Miscanthus x giganteus, pine, and willow were compared with those of the pyrolysed residuals from the biorefining of Miscanthus, and maize (Zea mays L) seedlings were grown on soil amended with these biochars. The paper can be downloaded here and the presentation here.

Prof. Hayes gave a presentation on the development of a biochar classification system by the Carbolea research group. It is very important to develop a biochar preparation nd testing protocol that that will allow classification of biochar products in terms of their properties for uses in agriculture. The paper can be downloaded here.


01 Aug 2010

Carbolea Humic Research Presented at the 19th World Congress of Soil Science

Prof. Michael H.B. Hayes presented a paper entitled ‘The Isolation and Chacterisation of Humic Substances and Humin from Grey Brown Podzolic and Gley Grassland Soils’ at the 19th World Congress of Soil Science which was held in Brisbane, Queensland in August 2010. This research involved an exhaustive extraction of the classical humic components of SOM, including the isolation of humin residues by novel procedures from a well drained Grey Brown Podzol and of the humin materials from a poorly drained Gley soil. 13C (solid state) and 1H (liquid state) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques were employed to show differences in the compositions of the different isolates. That paper can be downloaded here.


02 Jul 2010

DIBANET Press Release Following Buenos Aires Meeting

Today a press release was issued regarding the recent DIBANET meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It covers the advances made to date in the project. The press release can be accessed here.


27 Jun 2010

Presentations by Carbolea Members at IHSS Symposium in Teneriffe

Carbolea members present their research at the 15th Meeting of the International Humic Substances SocietyHumic Substances and the Maintenance of Ecosystem Services”, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain 27th June – 2nd July 2010.

Michael H.B. Hayes has been invited to give a keynote lecture on ‘Evolution of Modern Concepts of the Compositions of Humic Substances’. The presentation will look at how research using advanced analytical techniques has shaped our knowledge about the compositions of humic substances.

Michael will also present a paper co-authored by Corinna M.P. Byrne and colleagues Prof. Roger S. Swift and Dr. Andre J. Simpson. This paper “Humin: The Simplest of the Humic Substances?” will describe in details how the structure of humin, the most recalcitrant fraction of soil organic matter, has been unravelled. The paper can be downloaded here.

A poster on “Changes in dissolved organic matter losses from soils under different management” authored by Corinna M.P. Byrne, Michael H.B. Hayes and Dr. Andre J Simpson will be presented which summaries the research finding recently published by Byrne et al., 2010 in Water Research. This poster can be downloaded here and the paper here.

Oceans are the largest global carbon pool and are estimated to hold approximately 38,000 PgC (petagrams of carbon). The oceanic sediments contain 150 Pg of organic matter (OM). Rosaleen Mylotte will present her work on the Study of Estuarine Sediments in Galway Bay, Ireland both orally and by poster. This work, co-authored by Prof. Michael HB Hayes and Dr. Catherine Dalton (Mary Immaculate College, Limeick, Ireland), examines core samples from the transitional waters in Galway Bay. A main focus of the study is the effect that the estuary is having on the bay especially, with regards to the organic matter (OM) present. OM is washed into the Bay from the River Corrib and its tributary streams. OM is a reservoir of carbon (in sediments) and an important sink. Studying the organic and inorganic colloidal components contained within the estuarine sediments can give indications of changes that have occurred over time to the composition of the matter transported to the estuary and will provide an insight into the composition of carbon sequestered in the sediments. The project is studying in detail the compositions of the HS at different depths and their associations with the sediments. The poster can be downloaded here.

Research data from Carbolea’s work on Biochar will also be presented in Tenerife. A paper entitled “Properties of Biochar Produced from Miscanthus x giganteus and its Influence the Growth of Maize (Zea mays L.)” authored by Dr. Witold Kwapinski, P. Wolfram, Corinna M.P. Byrne, Fergus Melligan, Dr. Etelvino H. Novotny, Dr. J.J. Leahy, Prof. Michael H.B. Hayes, will be presented which summaries the research finding recently published by Kwapinski et al., 2010 in Waste and Biomass Valorization. The IHSS paper abstract can be downloaded here.

Work on the “Extraction of High-Value Lipids from Irish Peats” will be presented as a poster by Raymond McInerney, co-authored by Daniel J. Hayes, Dr. J.J. Leahy and Prof. Michael HB. Hayes.

 


15 Jun 2010

Michael Hayes Awarded President's Medal

Michael Hayes was today honoured at the University of Limerick as a recipient of the President's Medal presented to him by Professor Don Barry, UL President. The UL President's Medal was established in 2002 to honour individuals who have provided outstanding support and service to the University of Limerick.

Speaking from today's ceremony UL President Professor Don Barry commended Professor' Hayes' dual commitments throughout his career to the pursuit of ground breaking research and the education of his students. "Michael Hayes not only has an impressive research record as well as many years of inspiring teaching to his credit, but also possesses an enthusiasm and energy that are an inspiration to his colleagues and peers.  His research and interests have brought him across the globe, and on reaching the milestone of his 80th birthday this year, he is thankfully showing no signs of slowing down.," said Professor Barry.

Michael Hayes, who was responsible for bringing the Harvard and Yale combined Athletics teams to UL three times since 1999, was also commended today for his contribution to Athletics at UL. "His continued commitment to athletics at UL is a testament to his dedication and enthusiasm for the wider student experience.  Michael champions the importance of developing both social and intellectual skills to compete and strive for excellence both on and off the field," said Professor Don Barry.  


31 May 2010

Carbolea Members Publish in High Impact Journal "Water Research"

A paper entitled “Compositional Changes in the Hydrophobic acids fraction of Drainage Water from Different Land Management Practices” will be published in Water Research (impact factor 4.355). This publication, written by Corinna Byrne and Prof. Michael H.B. Hayes along with colleagues Dr. Andre Simpson and Dr. Rajeev Kumar, University of Toronto, Dr. Gary Lanigan, Dr. Karl Richards, Dr. Deirdre Fay, Teagasc and Dr. Etelvino Novotny, Embrapa, received favourable reviews, with one reviewer stating “this paper makes a significant contribution to the understanding of dissolved organic matter character and transport from agricultural land, under different management regimes”. The paper can be downloaded here.


28 May 2010

Carbolea's Biochar Research Accepted for Publication

A paper by members of Carbolea entitled “Biochar from Biomass and Waste” has been published in the new journal Waste and Biomass Valorization. This paper examines the roles that soil amendments with biochar can have on soil fertility, carbon sequestration, on the emissions of greenhouse gases from soil, on fertilizer requirements, and on waste management. Results from Carbolea research are presented, showing that biochars produced under different conditions can have varying effects in plant growth. This further strengthens the need for a biochar classification system. The paper can be downloaded here.


18 May 2010

DIBANET Meeting in Buenos Aires

DIBANET held its first project review meeting in Buenos Aires on May 18-19. This meeting included the presentation of results to date and discussion of future strategies for the project by DIBANETs project partners. The progress to date, is summarised below:

  • A reactor system for the production of levulinic acid (an important cellulosic fuel
    precursor) from biomass is now operational at Carbolea.

  • Aston University (UK) and CERTH (Greece) have analysed and pyrolysed the
    residues from this system and are working towards the production of diesel miscible biofuels from these, so eliminating waste from the process and maximising potential revenue.

  • University Federal Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and the University of Buenos Aires
    (Argentina) have made exciting new developments regarding catalysts for both the upgrading of bio-oils from pyrolysis and the conversion of carbohydrates and levulinic acid.

  • It was agreed that the project should focus on the processing of sugarcane bagasse (from Latin America) and Miscanthus (from Europe) in the hydrolysis reactor. The end target is the design of a commercial system for a Brazilian sugarmill.

  • Project partners demonstrated that Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a highly effective technology for rapid feedstock analysis and evaluation, subsequent work will focus on the potential for applying such a system at future biorefineries and sugar mills - “Such a system will allow suppliers of feedstock to be paid based on the biofuel potential of their material” said Daniel Hayes.

These developments have allowed advances to be made at many key points of this DIBANET process chain. Project Co-ordinator Prof. Michael H.B. Hayes said “The exciting results presented at this meeting show the great advances that can occur when leading research groups from Europe and Latin America work together for the greater good of both regions. This is only the first such meeting for DIBANET and we envisage even greater advances in the coming years. Our focus on the production of diesel miscible biofuels from waste materials through abiotic processes offers us a great competitive advantage in the crowded biofuels sector and the concerted effort of all partners is towards the development of a commercial system. Following this meeting I am more confident than ever about us achieving that goal”.


The importance of this research to the industry was underlined by the hosting of this event at the headquarters of YPF, a large Argentinian oil company. YPF will analyse and evaluate the range of biofuels produced from the DIBANET technologies.


14 May 2010

Michael Hayes Visits Laboratories of DIBANET Partner EMBRAPA

Prof. Michael Hayes today visited Etelvino Novotny at Embrapa, Rio de Janeiro for discussions on their collaborative studies with biochar. Embrapa is a member of the DIBANET project which Carbolea is co-ordinating.


13 May 2010

Michael Hayes Visits Laboratories of DIBANET Partner UFRJ

Prof. Michael Hayes today visited visited the laboratories of Professor Victor  Texeira at UFRJ (University Federal Rio de Janeiro). UFRJ is a member of the DIBANET project which Carbolea is co-ordinating. Professor Texeira has an excellent reputation for his work on catalysis. He has a  highly comprehensive set of pyrolysis and analytical equipment, and he leads a dedicated group of scientists.


28 Apr 2010

Corinna Presents at Biochar Workshop at Rothamsted

Corinna Byrne recently presented a paper at the 2nd annual UK Biochar Conference which was held at Rothamsted Research 28th-29th April 2010. The overall purpose of the conference was to enable those interested or actively researching biochar to come together to discuss biochar from an inter-disciplinary perspective.

The first day involved keynote presentations setting the scene for biochar as an agricultural and carbon storage product, and identify the key research questions. The second day was dedicated to a detailed examination of emerging research data around biochar production, soil interactions, life cycle analysis, economic appraisal and so on. Over the two days 130 delegates attended the meeting.
Corinna presented the biochar research under way in Carbolea. Her presentation can be viewed here or on the Downloads page. The abstract can be seen here.

The effect of additions of biochar on plant germination was examined and it was shown that biochar produced at 400ºC suppressed plant growth, while biochar from the higher temoerature of 600ºC increase plant growth. This highlighted the need to developing a biochar classification system to establish the preparation criteria that will give rise to biochars with properties that have desired effects. This classification system will indicate the value of various biochars for different applications. Work is underway in Carbolea to determine which biochar is most suitable to increase plant growth under Irish conditions.


19 Mar 2010

Carbolea Members Join COST Actions

COST is an intergovernmental framework for European Cooperation in Science and Technology, allowing the coordination of nationally-funded research on a European level. COST contributes to reducing the fragmentation in European research investments and opening the European Research Area to cooperation worldwide.

Prof. Michael H.B. Hayes has been nominated as a delegate to COST Action CM0903: Utilisation of Biomass for Sustainable Fuels & Chemicals (UBIOCHEM). The main objective of the Action is to generate a synergistic approach for utilisation of biomass for sustainable fuels & chemicals through cooperation between scientists from different member states and different areas and disciplines.
Special emphasis will be placed on the utilisation of lignocellulose biomass, algae and non-edible crops, which does not compete with food. It will involve the use of green catalytic methodologies (homogeneous, heterogeneous, enzymatic and photocatalysis) and novel reaction media.

Daniel Hayes is the Irish National member of COST Action FP0901: Analytical Techniques for Biorefineries. The main objective of this Action is to develop new and evaluate existing sufficient analytical methods related to forest-based and agroindustrial Biorefineries that eventually will be applied within novel and existing sustainable Biorefining processes and for products, as well as in state-of-the-art academic research and innovations.


26 Feb 2010

Launch of BIOMOB Project

Today marked the launch of the BIOMOB programme dealing with Regional biomass resources.`The programme is coordinated by Shannon Development, Ireland, and there are partners from Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Scotland, and Sweden. Raymond McInerney and Michael Hayes from the Carbolea Group are involved in the project. Raymond’s job is to collate all the biomass resources in the Shannon Region, the industries that utilise biomass, and the Institutions involved in Biomass research. He collects and collates similar information from the other members of the consortium. This is a feasibility study. It is hoped that it will lead to an extended programme that will enable the establishment of sustainable agriculture based industries in the different regions.


18 Feb 2010

Carbolea Presence at National Bioenergy Conference 2010

Michael Hayes, JJ Leahy and Raymond McInerney attended "The National Bioenergy Conference 2010 ‘Developing and Financing Bioenergy". This event was organised by Teagasc and the Irish Bioenergy Association and took place at The Tipperary Institute in Thurles. Carbolea has numerous active projects in the area of bioenergy.


16 Feb 2010

Letter Published in Irish Times

A letter written by Carbolea's Prof. Michael Hayes was today published in the Irish Times national newspaper. It concered the plans for the construction, in Poolbeg, Dublin, of a large incinerator to treat the muncipal wastes from the Dublin region that are currently sent to landfill. It argued that the incineration technology has been superceded by biorefining processes that can offer higher value products from their processing of waste materials. The full letter can be read on the Irish Times website or through this link on the Carbolea site.


14 Jan 2010

Carbolea Presentation at Limavady to EU Consortium

Prof. Michael H. B. Hayes presented at Limavady, Co. Derry, Ireland, to an FP7 Workshop for persons involved in biomass related research in the Coastal Regions of N Europe. The presentation outlined the objectives of DIBANET, with especial emphasis on the relevant biorefining operations. There is a significant involvement in the growing of Coppice Willow in Co. Derry. The product is made into chips for burning. The lecture outlined the additional value that can be obtained from biorefining because, in addition to the platform chemicals that are recoverable, pyrolysis of the residual materials will provide syngas, bio-oil (which can be upgraded to diesel additive quality) and biochar, an excellent plant growth enhancer.


05 Oct 2009

Project Update:Biochar Production, Analysis and Plant Growth Trials

The webpage detailing our work on the production, analysis and evaluation of biochar has been updated. In particular there are pictures and data on the observations as to how various biochars influence the germination of Maize plants. It has been noticed that there is a siginificant positive effect in the first month of plant growth, when compared with controls, for biochar amended soils. It is hypothesised that this is due to hormonal effects from chemicals (probably from the bio-oil vapours) sorbed on to the biochars. Katerina Kryachko and Witold Kwpainski are the persons with most involvement in this project. More details can be found on the appropriate webpage.


05 Oct 2009

Project Update: Analysis of Peat as a Feedstock for Biorefineries

The webpage detailing our work, on the analysis of peats and evaluation as to their suitability for processing in varioud biorefining technologies, has been updated today. Daniel Hayes and Raymond McInerney are the people with most involvement in this project, the updated material can be found here.


02 Oct 2009

Project Update: Analysis and Evaluation of Irish Agricultural Products for Biroefining

Today the webpage detailing the research project funded by the Department of Agriculture's Research Stimulus fund has been updated. The update includes a list of all of the samples that have beem collected, processed and analysed to date as well as particular observations concerning Miscanthus x giganteus, which is a particularly attractive energy crop for Ireland. Daniel Hayes is the person with most involvement in this area. More details can be found on the appropriate webpage.


25 Sep 2009

Carbolea Booth at IRCSET 2009 Symposium

Carbolea today occupied one of the four display booths at the IRCSET 2009 Symposium "Innovation Fuelling the Smart Society". The booth displayed a slide show and posters representing many of Carbolea's current projects. These posters included:

"Biomass Pyrolysis and Gasification and Their Applications" by Witold Kwapinski

"DIBANET - Development of Integrated Biomass Approaches Network" by Corinna Byrne

"Analysis of Biomass Feedstocks and Evaluation of Suitability for Biorefining and Pyrolysis Schemes" by Daniel Hayes

"Pyrolysis of Biomass to produce Bio-Oil" by Fergus Melligan

"Enhancements of Soil Fertility from Biochar Amendments" by Katerina Kryachko

Much of Daniel Hayes's PhD work was funded by IRCSET.


23 Sep 2009

Resarch Areas Update: Biorefining and Second Generation Biofuels

The webpage detailing the background to biorefining and second generation biofuels has been updated. There is now more detail on the various types of technologies and diagrams detailing these. Please refer to the appropriate webpage for more information.


06 Jul 2009

FUNLEVEL Proposal Passes Stage 2 FP7 Evaluation Threshold

The Evaluation Summary Report for FUNLEVEL, a proposal for a project to be co-ordinated by Carbolea and submitted under the FP7-2009-BIOREFINERY Call "Sustainable Biorefineries", was received today. The proposal is one of only 5 proposals (from a total of over 60) to make the threshold score for eligbility for funding. The following months will determine whether this will equate to the start of negotiation phase for the project and its ultimate funding. The full title for FUNLEVEL is "Catalytic Conversion of Biomass into FUraN and LEVulinic Acid Derivatives for Applications in Biofuels and Biopolymers", it is a 48 month project, with 14 partners and a total budget of €12.2m with €2.4m allocated for Carbolea. An abstract of the proposal is available on this site.


24 Jun 2009

Michael Hayes Presents Keynote Address at University of Aachen

Michael Hayes today presented a keynote address to the international symposium entitled "Tailor Made Fuels from Biomass" at the University of Aachen, Germany. The presentation can be downloaded from this website.


11 Jun 2009

Michael Hayes Delivers Keynote Speech at Feasta Conference

Today Michael Hayes gave a keynote speech entitled "Second Generation Biorefining for Sustainable Indigenous Industries for Ireland" at the Feasta "New Emergency Conference". In this presentation, biorefining processes are outlined, with discussion of acid versus enzymatic hydrolysis for lignocellulose biorefinery feedstocks. The products of high temperature/high pressure biorefining processes yielding furfural, levulinic acid, formic acid, and biorefinery residuals are illustrated, and the extents to which the chemical products can provide platform chemicals and fuel additives are discussed. Emphasis is given to pyrolysis products (gases, bio-oil and biochar) of the residuals, and of the potential to upgrade the bio-oil to fuel additive products, and to the uses of the biochar in soil amendment processes. The presentation can be downloaded here and a video of it can be watched here or below.

   

 


05 May 2009

Carbolea Researchers on Morning Ireland Radio Show

In a recorded interview with Eleanor Burnhill of the RTE Morning Ireland Programme Professors Michael Hayes and Julian Ross outlined the ongoing studies on the utilisations of biomass at the Carbolea Group, located in the CES Department of the University of Limerick. They stressed how biorefining operations give platform chemicals, fuels and fuel additives, and biorefinery residuals (BRs), and indicated how pyrolysis of BRs gives bio-oil, which can be upgraded to fuel additive grade, biochar, an excellent soil amender and carbon sequesterer, and fuel gases. Excerpts from the recording have been used in Morning Ireland programmes. At a Biochar meeting at the University of Edinburgh on April 1, Professor Hayes spoke with Jerry Harrison, a Harvard graduate in the Environmental Sciences area, and a former lead musician with the famed Talking Heads. Jerrry has a strong interest in biochar. Hayes informed Miss Burnhill of the Harrison interest. When she interviewed him for Morning Ireland he reiterated his belief in the environmental benefits of Biochar, and indicated that he had interested Bono in the benefits of the product.


09 Dec 2008

New Waste Evaluation Project Starts at Carbolea

December also sees the start of a project funded by the EPA Strive Programme. The project will involve the detailed analysis and characterisation of various wastes (including industrial and municipal wastes) in order to ascertain their potential in various biorefining and/or pyrolysis technologies. Following this analysis these methods of waste treatment will be compared with more conventional processes such as landfill, incineration and anaerobic digestion. The Project will last one year and will involve Daniel Hayes and Patrick Cross.


01 Dec 2008

New Peat Evaluation Project Starts

December sees the start of a new project at Carbolea, funded by Bord na Mona. This inolves the the detailed analysis and characterisation of various peats in order to ascertain their potential in various biorefining and/or pyrolysis technologies. The Project will inolve Daniel Hayes, Ainara Melus and Enrico Perelli.


08 Sep 2008

Strong Presence at the Internation Biochar Initiative 2008

Several members of Carbolea attended the 2008 Conference for the International Biochar Initiative. This was located in Newcastle, England and saw a significant increase in attendance from the 2007 conference, based in Terrigal, Australia, which was also attended by Carbolea.

Prof. Michael Hayes made a keynote presentation under the session entitled "Biochar Characterisation". He discussed the advanced biochar characterisation techniques that have been developed at Carbolea and there were also several posters by the group on display. The presentation can be downloaded from the website.

There can potentially be a major role for biochar in carbon sequestration and soil fertility and Carbolea hopes to be strongly involved in this through our current and forthcoming projects. The origins of interest in biochar are outlined with especial focus on the enhanced ferertility conferred on the Terra Preta soils from biochar amendments by pre-Columbian native Indians. The fact that the surface area of 10 g of biochar is equivalent to the area of the Croke Park playing field highlights the immense reactive surface that it provides. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate compositional aspects, and differences of biochars formed under varied reaction conditions. Reference is made to the refuges that biochars provide for fungi and bacteria that can influence plant growth, and the growth enhancing effect for plants is shown..


26 May 2008

Successful Launch of the CPI

The Charles Parsons Initiative, of which Carbolea is a member, was officially lauched today.The launch was addressed by Minister Eamon Ryan (Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources), Professor Son Barry (President of the University of Limerick), and Lord Oxburgh of Liverpool (ex-chairman of Shell and chairman of D1 Oils). There were also world renowned experts in the fields of biomass, wind, biofuels, ocean energy and energy storage. The event was well attended by stakeholders from various fields.

The programme can be downloaded here and many presentations can be downloaded from the CPI website while those relating to the areas of study in Carbolea can be downloaded below:

Lord Oxburgh of Liverpool - "Some Thoughts on Biofuels..."

Daniel Hayes - "Biorefining, Work at Carbolea and the Biofine Process"

Dr. Dmitri Bulushev and Prof. Julian Ross - "Catalysis for Hydrogen and Transport Fuel Production from Biomass"

Dr. JJ Leahy and Dr. Witold Kwapinski - Thermochemical Conversion/Biomass Gasification

Prof. Austin Darragh - "Sir Charles Parsons and the Evolution of an Energy Led Economy"

Katerina Kryachko - "Bio-char and Plant Growth"


14 Feb 2008

Members Attend Annual AAAS Meeting

Carbolea members Daniel Hayes, and Michael Hayes attended the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) which took place in Boston, USA. There were numerous talks on the state of play and progress regarding second generation biofuels and advanced biomass technologies. There appears to be an understanding in America that first generation biofuels can only go so far, there is a cap (15 billion gallons) on the amount of ethanol that can come from maize. It is expected that the majority of the biofuel quotas for 2022 and beyond will come from second generation technologies.



 

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